United Nations Organisation

United Nations Organisation
  • World's first largest international organisation and a successor of League of Nations(League of Nations was formed after the Ist World War, but it failed).
  • The Charter of the UN was signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945, at a meeting of the representatives of 50 states, representing 2/3rd of the world population.
  • The name United Nations was given at the instance of US PresidentRoosevelt.
  • The Charter or the Constitution was formed at Dumbarton Oaks(Washington DC) Conference by USSR, UK, US and China.
  • Formally came into existence on Oct 24, 1945.
  • First regular session was held in London in Jan, 1946 and Trygve Le (Norway) was elected the first Secretary General.
  • Headquarters located at First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York City, New York, US. It is 17 acre tract of land donated by John D. Rockfeller. The building is 39 storeys.
  • The purpose of the UN can be divided into 4 groups: Security, Justice, Welfare and Human Rights.
  • Disarm, decolonise and develop are the 3 new objectives set forth by the UN.
  • One of the principles of UN is not to interfere in the internal affairs of any State so long as it acts according to the terms of the charter.
  • The official languages of the UN are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish, while the working languages are English and French only.
  • New members are admitted to the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
  • The present membership of UN is 92.


There are six principal bodies of the UN:
  1. General Assembly
  2. Security Council
  3. Economic and Social Council
  4. International Court of Justice
  5. Trusteeship Council
  6. Secretariat
General Assembly(GA):
  • Consists of all member states of the UN. Each member nation can send five delegates but each nation has only one vote.
  • The general Assembly meets in regular session beginning in September each year.

Security Council(SC):
  • It is the executive body of the UN. It consists of total 15 member, out of which 5 members are permanent and the remaining 10 members are non-permanent.
  • China, France, Russia, UK and USA are the permanent members.
  • The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years from among the member states.
  • The permanent members of the security council have got veto power. Any matter supported by the majority of the members fails to be carried through if negative vote is cast by any of the permanent members.

Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC):
  • This organ of the UN consists of 54 representatives of the member countries elected by a two third majority of the General Assembly.
  • Its main function is to achieve international co-operation by solving international problems of economic, social, cultural and humanitarian character.
  • One third of this council is elected every year for the period of three years and equal numbers retire annually.

International Court of Justice(ICJ):
  • It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • The headquarters of the International Court of Justice is at the Hague (Netherlands).
  • The court consists of 15 judges. The judges of the court are elected by the General Assembly along with the security council for a nine year term.

Trusteeship Council:
  • This organ consists of 14 members out of which 5 are the permanent members of the Security Council.
  • The function of this organ is to provide for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self governing and which may be placed there under by individual agreements.

  • This organ of the UN is the chief administrative office which coordinates and supervises the activities of the UN.
  • this secretariat is headed by a Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
  • Secretary General of the UN is elected for five years and eligible for re-election.

  1. Trygve Le (Norway) 1946-53
  2. Dag Hammarskjoeld (Sweden) 1953-61
  3. U. Thant (Burma) 1961-71
  4. Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-81
  5. Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) 1982-91
  6. Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1992-96
  7. Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1997-2007
  8. Ban Ki-Moon (South Korea) 2007-till date

International Labour Organisation(ILO):
  • Established in: 1919
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: To improve conditions and living standard of workers

World Health Organisation(WHO):

  • Established in: 1948
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: Attainment of highest possible level of health by all people

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation(UNESCO):

  • Established in: 1946
  • Headquarters: Paris
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote collaboration among nations through education, science and culture

International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA):
  • Established in: 1957
  • Headquarters: Vienna
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote the peaceful uses of atomic energy

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund(UNICEF):
  • Established in: 1946
  • Headquarters: New York
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote children's welfare all over the world

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees(UNHCR):
  • Established in: 1950
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: To provide protection to refugees

United Nations Fund for Population Activities(UNFPA):

  • Established in: 1967
  • Headquarters: New York
  • Aims and Objectives: To formulate population policies

International Fund for Agricultural Development:

  • Established in: 1977
  • Headquarters: Rome
  • Aims and Objectives: For financing agricultural projects in the world to raise the economic growth

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development(UNCTAD):

  • Established in: 1964
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote international trade to accelerate economic growth of developing countries

International Civil Aviation Organisation(ICAO):

  • Established in: 1947
  • Headquarters: Montreal
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote safety of international aviation

International Monetary Fund(IMF):

  • Established in: 1945
  • Headquarters: Washington D.C.
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote international monetary cooperation

International Finance Corporation(IFC):

  • Established in: 1956
  • Headquarters: Washington D.C.
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote economic development by encouraging private enterprise in its member countries

Universal Postal Union(UPU):

  • Established in: 1947
  • Headquarters: Berne
  • Aims and Objectives: To improve various postal services in the world

United Nations Environmental Programme(UNEP):

  • Established in: 1972
  • Headquarters: Nairobi
  • Aims and Objectives: To fund and implement a wide range of development projects related to the atmosphere, marine and terrestrial eco-systems

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation(UNIDO):

  • Established in: 1967
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: To set international regulations for radio, telegraph, telephone and space radio communication

Food and Agricultural Organisation(FAO):

  • Established in: 1945
  • Headquarters: Rome
  • Aims and Objectives: To improve living condition of rural population

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development(IBRD):

  • Established in: 1945
  • Headquarters: Washington D.C.
  • Aims and Objectives: To develop economies of members by facilitating investment of capitals by providing loans

World Meteorological Organisation(WMO):

  • Established in: 1950
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote international exchange of weather reports

United Nations Development Programme(UNDP):

  • Established in: 1965
  • Headquarters: New York
  • Aims and Objectives: To help developing countries increase the wealth producing capabilities of their natural and human resources

Inter-government Maritime Consultative Organisation(IMCO):

  • Established in: 1958
  • Headquarters: London
  • Aims and Objectives: To promote co-operation on technical matters of maritime safety, navigation and encourages anti-pollution measures

International Development Association(IDA):

  • Established in: 1960
  • Headquarters: Washington D.C.
  • Aims and Objectives: As an affiliate to World Bank, to help under-developed countries raise living standards

International Telecommunication Union(ITU):

  • Established in: 1947
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Aims and Objectives: To set international regulations for radio telegraph, telephone and space radio communication

United Nations Institute for Training and Research(UNITAR):

  • Established in: 1965
  • Headquarters: New York
  • Aims and Objectives: To provide training and research to help facilitate UN objectives of the world peace and security and of economic and social progress

United Nations Relief and Work for Palestine Refugees(UNRWA):

  • Established in: 1949
  • Headquarters: New York
  • Aims and Objectives: To provide basic amenities and education for the victims of Arab-Israel War

Comments (0)