1) who was the king of sindh when the Arabs attacked it?

When in 39th century of Kaliyuga (i.e 8th century A.D.). Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam. In order to face off Muslim invasions across the western and northern borders of Rajputana, Bappa united the smaller states of Ajmer and Jaisalmer to stop the attacks. Bappa Rawal fought and defeated the Arabs in the country and turned the tide for a time being. Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was stopped by Bappa Rawal.

2) who was the muslim king who attacked india in 1175 a.d.?

Sultan Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori (also Ghauri, Ghouri) (Persian: سلطان شہاب الدین محمد غوری), originally called Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām(and also referred to by Orientalists as Muhammad of Ghor) (1162 – 15 March 1206), was a ruler of the Ghorid dynasty who reigned over a territory spanning present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India.

Shahabuddin Ghori reconquered the city of Ghazna (in modern-day Afghanistan) in 1173, and assisted his brother Ghiyasuddin in his contest withKhwarezmid Empire for the lordship of Khorāsān. Shahabuddin Ghori captured Multan and Uch in 1175 and annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186. After the death of his brother Ghiyas-ud-Din in 1202, he became the successor of his empire and ruled until his assassination in 1206 near Jhelum (in modern-day Pakistan).

A confused struggle then ensued among the remaining Ghūrid leaders, and the Khwarezmids were able to take over the Ghūrids' empire in about 1215. Though the Ghūrids' empire was short-lived, Shahabuddin Ghori's conquests strengthened the foundations of Muslim rule in India.

3) the sufi order which had dara shikoh as its followers was....?

The Qadiri Order :

  • It was founded by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani of Baghdad. It was popularized in India by Shah Niamatullah and Makhdum Muhammad Jilani.
  • Dara Shikoh, the eldest son of Shah Jahan, was a follower of this order.

4) the suhrawardi silsila's main centre was....?

5) the progenitor of the bhakti movement in maharashtra...?

Jnandeva (1275-96 AD) - He was progenitor of Bhakti movement in Maharashtra.

6) kabir, nanak, jhanadeva, chaithanya,..who used hindi to spread his teachings?

Ramananda and Kabir preached and wrote in Hindi.Nanak and his followers taught and wrote in the Punjabi. Chaitanya disciples developed the Bengali literature. Similarly, other preachers wrote in Marathi, Maithali and Braja Bhasa, etc. the regional languages began to develop rapidly because of need for the Bhakti literature.


7) in sultanate period, who was minister or department which conducted royal correspodance?

Although the Sultan ruled autocratically, it would be impossible for a single man to manage so much. The Sultans of Delhi, right from the beginning of their rule instated a vast administrative machinery to handle the various tasks. None of the departments had much authority and mainly assisted in carrying out the Sultan's orders. The highest officer in the government after the Sultan was the Wazir (chief minister) who looked after the various departments like appeals, military, correspondence, slaves, justice, intelligence, agriculture and pensions amongst others. Each department had a head officer with several subordinate officers. The State also had several officers like an auditor general who looked after the expenditure, an accountant, a treasurer etc. There was also a Chancellor who was responsible for state correspondence and the relation between the court and provincial officials.


8) who was last great slave sultan?

Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty

Muhammad of Ghor (d. 1206), based in Afghanistan, had extended his state southwards at the expense of the Ghaznavids as far as Lahore and much of the Punjab. He appointed Qutub-ud-din Aibak, his Mamluk or slave, as governor of this part of his realm, who started an independent state after the death of his master. The Mamluk dynasty is also known as the Slave Dynasty as Aibak was a former slave of Muhammad Ghori. Aibak began the construction of Qutub Minar, which was completed by Iltutmish, his successor and son-in-law. Aibak's legitimate successor was his son Aramshah, but the nobles preferred Iltutmish, the Subedar of Badaun. Iltutmish was followed by Razia Sultana, his daughter, who was a good administrator and the first female ruler in the Muslim world. She was endowed with all qualities befitting a King, but she was not born of the right sex, and in the estimation of men all her virtues were worthless. Her rumored relationship with a Sidi adviser, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, as he continued to rise in rank, forced her nobles to revolt against her. After Yaqut was killed and Razia imprisoned, she later wedded Altunia (the governor of Bhatinda), but she was killed by her nobles, after 3 and half years. Balban succeeded her and ruled until 1286 AD. Many infamous and inefficient rulers followed. Faced with revolts by conquered territories and rival families, the Mamluk dynasty came to an end in 1290. Balban was a great Emperor. He highly regarded Sufi Saints: he was a devotee and many a Sufi mystic settled in his sultanate, though only one of them rose to full ascendancy over him.



9) which article of constitution deals with amending power of parliment?

Part XX of the Constitution of India deals with the Amendment of the Constitution. The Article 368 specifies the power of Parliament to amend the constitution and the procedure of it. It is also mentioned in the Article that there will be no limitation on the constituent power of the Parliament for amending it by adding, removing or improving the provisions made in it.


10) 1st law officer of govt.of india..?

The Attorney General is the first law officer of the government of India. The Attorney General is appointed by the President and he holds office during the pleasure of the President . His duties are to advise the government on legal matters to perform other legal duties which are referred or assigned to him by the President and to discharge the functions conferred on by him by the Constitution. In order to be appointed as the Attorney General a person must be qualified to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court. Though he is not a member of the Cabinet he has the right to speak in both the Houses of Parliament or any committee thereof, but he has no right to vote. In the performance of his official duties the Attorney General shall have a right of audience in all the courts in the territory of India. The Attorney General represents the government but is allowed to take up private practice provided the other party is not the state. Because of this he is not paid salary but a retainer to be determined by the President. The Attorney General gets a retainer equivalent to the salary of a judge of a Supreme Court.

11) 'paper gold' in international finance means..?

Paper gold is generally known as a class of paper certificates that guarantee a conversion of their value into actual gold. These kinds of gold certificates are often used on foreign exchanges instead of actual gold to make financial transactions easier. A more specific definition of paper gold involves the International Monetary Fund or IMF.


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