hi sir

nanda kishore from srinivasa college in kadapa.sir my aim IAS
officer but poor in communication skills..........how to develope the
communications skills.......pleas sir m waiting 4 u r

urs faithfully


Dear Nanda Kishore :


read answers for most of your questions at


see CIVIL details at




Snapshot About the ExamThe Civil
Services Examination is conducted by the UPSC (Union Public Service
Commission) every year to select candidates for the prestigious
all-India services which include the IAS,IPS,IFS,IRS and others like
Group A and Group B central jobs.
Details The examination is conducted in 3 stages:
  1. Preliminary exam – The format is going to change from 2011 onwards.
  2. Main Exam – Only those who clear the 1st
    stage can take this exam. The pattern for this exam remains the same.
    There are 9 papers to be attempted in this section spread of a few days.
  3. Interview - Those who clear the mains examination have to appear before an Interview Board at New Delhi.
for the civil services will be facing a different pattern of
examination from next year (2011) since the government has approved a
proposal to introduce an aptitude test (CSAT-Civil Services Aptitude
Test) in place of the preliminary exam to shortlist candidates for the
main exam. Till the preliminary exam of 2010, aspirants had to attempt
two papers: a General Studies Paper and an optional paper in which
aspirants had to select one subject among the 23 subjects listed by
UPSC. Now instead of this optional subject, there will be a general
aptitude test. The only hint received from the Government about the
content of General Aptitude test is that “greater emphasis will given to
test the aptitude for civil services as well as on ethical and moral
dimensions of decision-making”. This change will be effective only for
the Preliminary examination while the Main examination will remain
unchanged until an expert committee gives a detailed report for changing
?Format of the Main Examination:
   of the Indian Languages to be selected by the candidate from the 18
languages   included in the VIIIth Schedule to the Constitution
(Qualifying Paper)
300 Marks
Paper-2English   (Qualifying paper)300 Marks
Paper-3Essay200 Marks
Paper 4 & 5General   Studies (300 Marks for each paper)600 Marks
Paper 6,7,8 & 9                Any two subjects (each   having 2 papers) to be selected from the prescribed optional subjects (300   marks for each paper)
1200 Marks
Total Marks for Written Examination2000 Marks
Interview Test300 Marks
Grand Total2300 Marks
subjects: Agriculture, Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science,
Anthropology, Botany, Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Commerce &
Accountancy, Economics, Electrical Engineering, Geography, Geology,
History, Law, Management, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Medical
Science, Philosophy, Physics, Political Science & International
Relations, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology, Statistics,
Languages: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada,
Kashmiri, Konkani, Marathi, Malayalam, Manipuri, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi,
Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu.
Eligibility The
candidate must hold a degree from any of the government recognised
and/or deemed universities or must possess an equivalent qualification.
He must have completed 21 years of age in the year he is appearing for
the exam. The maximum age limit is 30 for a general candidate, 33 for
OBCs and 35 for SCs/STs. Ex-servicemen will get 5 more years exemption
from the prescribed age limit. Similarly the number of allowed attempts
is 4 for general category, 7 for OBCs and unlimited for SC/STs.
Appearing for the preliminary exam or even one paper is counted as an
How To Prepare Your
preparation for the civil services examination should be systematic and
well thought out right from the word go. Begin with the preparation for
the prelims i.e. CSAT. There is NO optional paper from 2011, so the new
syllabus would include general studies and general aptitude. The
syllabus of General Studies is too spread out and would cover current
events of national and international importance, history of India and
Indian national movement, Indian and World Geography: Physical, social,
economic geography of India and World, Indian Polity and Governance:
Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights
issues, Economic and Social Development: Sustainable development,
Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social sector initiatives, General
issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, Climate Change,- that
don’t require subject specialization and General Science. Be updated
with the current affairs of at least the last 2 years. Since there are 2
papers on General studies in the Mains exam as well, be thorough with
this section.  From 2011 onwards, be prepared to face psycho-analytical
questions that test your overall personality and decision making
abilities in the General Aptitude section.
Preparation for the
main exam should not be kept till the results of the prelims are
declared. There isn’t just enough time after that.
You have 9
papers to take, so start preparing well in advance. You have to select 2
subjects out of a list of optional subjects. There are 2 papers each on
each of these two subjects. Select the subjects wisely. Do not just
select them on the basis of how scoring they can be, instead select
subjects that interest you.
Pick out the right textbooks after
selecting your subject. Read the text fully and make notes side by side
so that you don’t have to go through the whole text again. This would
save your time and energy.
The essay paper is an important section
because it is a compulsory paper and is a level playing field as there
are no specialisations here.  Practice writing well-organised and
effective essays. Go through the previous years’ essay topics to get an
idea about the kind of questions to expect. Work on your writing skills
and stick to producing comprehensive, concise and correct text.
interview judges your personality and confidence. It can be quite
subjective, differing from person to person and also from one interview
panel to the other. The interview carries 300 marks and if it goes well
can tilt the balance in your favour. There are no hard and fast rules to
prepare for an interview. However some important points to be kept in
mind: Prepare and polish your views and opinion on events and issues of
current interest. Do not bluff around if you don’t know the answer to a
question asked. Be regular with reading newspapers and magazines. Have
active discussions with friends. This will help improve the way you
present an answer or opinion. Be polite and courteous while answering a
question during the interview.
Colleges Accepting This ExamThis
exam selects candidates for the prestigious all-India services which
include the IAS,IPS,IFS,IRS and others like Group A and Group B central
jobs. The National Academy of Administration at Mussoorie now known as
the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration imparts
training to IAS probationers.
Important Dates
  • Prelim: 12th June 2011
  • Mains: 29th Oct 2011 (different papers spread over around 21 days).
If the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh has been saying it repeatedly
that Naxalism is the biggest challenge to our internal security he clearly wants
to underline the dangers it has been posing to India, as also the need to deal
with the challenge in a most effective way.

which started from Naxalbari area in West Bengal in 1967, ostensibly to champion
the cause of small farmers and tribals through violence, was wiped out in 1970.
It soon became out of fashion in its homeland West Bengal. But the underground
operations of the outfit continued. The problem became more serious after the
merger of the Peoples War Group (PWG) and the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) in
September, 2004 which led to the formation of the CPI (Maoist). Naxalism today
holds sway in vast swathes of 10 states in the country, involving about 180

Recently the Home Minister said in the Parliament that Naxal
challenge had been underestimated over the years as a result of which left wing
extremism had increased its area of influence. The Home Minster said that they
now pose a very grave challenge to the state. Just days before his statement 36
policemen, including an SP, had been ambushed by the Maoists in
It was in this backdrop Mr. Chidambaram urged the Members of
Parliament to join hands in facing the challenge. "All sections of the house
must recognize that if we must remain a democratic, republic ruled by law, we
must collectively rise and face the challenge of left wing extremism" Shri
Chidambaram said.

In its status report presented to the Parliament on
March 13, 2006, the then Home Minister Mr. Shivraj Patil said that the Naxalite
movement continues to persist in terms of spatial spread and intensity of
violence. He pointed out that it remains an "area of serious concern". Naxal
violence has claimed about 6000 lives during the last 20 years. The question
that arises is why have the Naxals been able to extend their area of influence
over the years to become a serious threat to the country's internal

It is encouraging to know that the government is not treating
it as a mere law and order problem. The 2006 status report itself made it clear
that the Government would address the problem in a holistic manner. That
includes 'political security, development and public perception management
fronts' as well. Surely, the Naxal problem is deeply rooted in the social and
economic disparities in remote and tribal areas.
Since the fruits of
development have not percolated to these areas, the Naxal outfits are able to
exploit the sentiments of the local people. But the outfits themselves have been
preventing and in fact destroying, developmental initiatives taken by the
government. They destroy roads, railway infrastructure and administrative
institutions that are needed for speeding up developmental activities. Not only
this, they indulge in train hold-ups, jail breaks and attacks on
That is proof enough to indicate that they do not have real
interest in the development of these areas and their loyalties lie elsewhere.
Perhaps, they want to usurp political power which, they think, flows through the
barrel of the gun.

At the same time, a lot many measures need to be taken
to make the fight against Naxalism effective. On top of this is improving
governance in the affected areas by moving corrupt officials who exploit the
local people. It must also be ensured that large scale projects in these areas
do not lead to displacement of people, who in any case, live a life of

Since law and order is a state subject, the role of State
Governments in dealing with the problem can hardly be overemphasized. They too
have their share of responsibility to fulfil. A good deal of coordination
between the Centre and the States is, therefore, called for. This is
particularly true in view of the fact that the Outfits have established
inter-state networks. The state police need to be modernized to be able to
tackle the Naxal attacks. The Greyhounds experiment in Andhra Pradesh is a case
in sight. Actionable intelligence collection and sharing mechanisms need to be
strengthened. Funds provided to the States under the Police Modernization Scheme
need to be better utilized.

The states also need to go fast with raising
India Reserve Battalions, particularly in Naxal affected areas, which besides
addressing security concerns, provide jobs to the unemployed youth.

specially trained police force also needs to be put in place to fight the
Maoists who basically are adopting guerrilla warfare techniques. There is also a
difference in their targets. While other terrorist groups attack the strong
foundations of the country such as democracy, secularism and the financial
institutions, Maoists make India's weak points like poverty and economic
disparity as their targets. All this needs to be factored in the strategy to
deal with the Maoist problem.

Keeping in view the fact that the Naxal
groups have been raising mainly land and livelihood issues, it is important that
land reforms are taken up on a priority basis. States have also to focus on
physical infrastructure like roads, buildings, bridges, railway lines,
communications and power etc. There is no room to brook any delay on this

Unfortunately, the several rounds of talks held with the Naxals
hitherto and the announcements of amnesties and attractive rehabilitation
schemes have not worked so far. Some states like Andhra Pradesh have a good
rehabilitation policy and it has achieved some success, but a lot more remains
to be done.

The Government indeed is committed to address the Naxal
problem in right earnest. It is focusing on improving intelligence set up at the
state level, providing help to the states to modernize and train their police
forces and accelerate development in the affected areas. What is needed is
better coordination both on security and developmental fronts to meet the
challenge posed by the Naxals.
A new subject has attracted legislators, thinkers, journalists and one could say the economists as well. Why should not we ban the entry of professionally qualified personnel into the IAS or IPS Services ?

Some have argued that government spends, directly or indirectly, a lot of money on the education of an Engineer or a Doctor and in case these professionals join general services like IAS or IPS the hard spent government money goes into the gutter. Good some thinking of the type has emerged to care for the state expenditure.

It was even in the year 1995 as well that some candidates from the general education side had suggested that engineering graduates should not be allowed to appear in entrance examination for IAS /IPS/IAAS/IRS and such like services. The reaction had been in response to the high rate of success in UPSC prime entrance examination from amongst the candidates with engineering degree, even clear walking away with almost 75 % of top ranks by engineering graduates ( doctors etc were not named at that time because they did not figure at the rate as the engineers figured to oust the
generalist). The position is not much different in 2008.And now expenditures made by the society/ government have been talked about.


Better before starting such discussions those so concerned with the subject would have asked
the Engineers, Doctors, Post Graduate in Sciences, and the like and more so the rank holders amongst these categories of technocrats from even premier institutions like Indian Institute of Technology, BITS Pilani, IIMs that why do they try all hards to enter the general services like IAS ( where minimum qualification is any graduate degree) and let go waste the technical expertise/ professionalism they otherwise acquired through so much of hard work and investment , even as acquired out of aims and ambitions ? have observed that the engineering graduates prefer to enter IAS than to go for IES ( Indian Engineering Service ) since they feel that the top seat of civil governance in
the Union Secretariat will generally be occupied by an IAS officer and not by the IES( Indian Engineering Service) officer. Such views were expressed by one of the engineering graduate who had ranked in top 5 of IAS list and had laid preference for IAS and not Indian Engineering Service.

I had been investigating in this direction for more than 12 years now. And have been able to work out some reasons for such type of thinking being developed. A few years earlier in India we used to talk of brain drain to out side India and it was reasoned that since the engineers/ scientists/ doctors are not well paid in terms of cash and career in India that is why they attempt leaving for US/UK/ other countries. And now the question is of brain drain from professional bank to the general service bank. The reason in this case lies both in Career Prospects, involvement in governance of the affairs of the society and perks in terms of monetary as well as social authority. The disparity between the IAS and other Government services is so huge that any one would prefer IAS . This aspect has been neglected by the Legislature as well as the executive all these years
Historical Background of UPSC
Indianization of the superior Civil Services became one of the major demands of the political
movement compelling the British Indian Government to consider setting up of a
Public Service Commission for recruitment to its services in the territory. The
first Public Service Commission was set up on October 1st, 1926. However, its
limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people's aspirations and the
continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted
in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government
of India Act 1935. Under this Act, for the first time, provision was also made
for the formation of Public Service Commissions at the provincial

The Constituent Assembly, after independence, saw the need for giving a secure and autonomous
status to Public Service Commissions both at Federal and Provincial levels for ensuring unbiased recruitment to Civil Services as also for protection of service interests. With the promulgation of the new Constitution for independent India on 26th January, 1950, the Federal Public Service Commission was accorded a constitutional status as an autonomous entity and given the title - Union Public Service Commission Constitutional Provisions

The Union Public Service Commission has been established under Article 315 of the Constitution of India. The Commission consists of a Chairman and nine Members.

The terms and conditions of service of Chairman and Members of the Commission are governed by the Union Public Service Commission (Members) Regulations, 1969.

The Commission is serviced by a Secretariat headed by a Secretary with two Additional Secretaries, a number of Joint Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries and other supporting staff.

The Union Public Service Commission have been entrusted with the following duties and role under the Constitution:

Recruitment to services & posts under the Union through conduct of competitive examinations;

Recruitment to services & posts under the Central Government by Selection through

Advising on the suitability of officers for appointment on promotion as well as

Advising the Government on all matters relating to methods of Recruitment to various services and posts;

Disciplinary cases relating to different civil services; and

Miscellaneous matters relating to grant of extra ordinary pensions, reimbursement of legal expenses etc.

The major role played by the Commission is to select persons to man the various Central Civil Services and Posts and the Services common to the Union and States (viz. All-India Services).

To Duties & Role of the Commission

Under Article 320 of the Constitution of India, the Commission are, inter-alia, required to be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment to civil services and posts.

RECRUITMENT is made by one of the following three methods:
# Direct Recruitment;
# Promotion
# Transfer

DIRECT RECRUITMENT is conducted broadly under the following two methods:

# Recruitment by competitive examination.
# Recruitment by selection through interview.

Under the Constitution one of the functions of the Commission is to conduct examinations for appointment to Civil Services/Posts of the Union. In addition, competitive examinations are also held by the Commission under arrangements with the Ministry of Defence for entry to certain Defence Services, through the National Defence Academy, Indian Military Academy, Naval Academy, Air Force Academy and the Officers Training Academy.

The Commission usually conducts over a dozen examinations every year on an all India basis. These include Examinations for recruitment to services/posts in various fields, such as Civil Services, Engineering, Medical and Forest Service, etc.

For an overview of examinations regularly held by the Commission. See "Overview of Examination" under this Chapter.

At present the Union Public Service Commission conduct their examinations at numerous venues spread over 42 regular centers throughout the country.

Recruitment by Selection is made by the following methods:

1. By Interview Only
2. By Recruitment Test Followed By Interview

Where the number of applicants is very large, it is not practicable to call for Interview all the
applicants who fulfill the minimum eligibility conditions prescribed. The Commission, therefore, shortlist the candidates to be called for the interview on the basis of certain pre-determined criteria related to the job. A large number of recruitment cases is handled by the Commission by the method (1) above.

In this category, there are two types of procedure followed:

An objective-type written and/or practical test to test the skill of the candidates followed by
Interview, the final selection being decided by Interview, aided by the performance of the candidates in the written test and/or practical test.

An objective-type written and/or practical test to screen candidates to be called for interview,
the final selection being decided by Interview only.

Appointment By Promotion And Transfer On Deputation/Transfer

In accordance with the procedure decided by the Government, in consultation with the Commission, Chairman or a Member of the Commission presides over the Departmental Promotion Committee Meetings to consider promotions from Group B to Group A and from one
grade to another within group A, where promotion is to be made by Selection.

DeputationThe Recruitment Rules for a number of posts provide for appointment by Transfer on Deputation
(including short term contract) and Transfer. When the field of consideration consists of Central Government as well as State Government officers, prior consultation with the Commission is necessary for selection of an officer. When the file for consideration is made more broad-based and consists of not only Central/State Government officers but also officers from Non-Government Institutions, the selection has to be made in consultation with the Union Public
Service Commission.

All India Services
The All India Services Act, 1951 and Rules and Regulations framed thereunder regulate the recruitment and conditions of service in respect of the All India Services viz. Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service.

As far as direct recruitment to the Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service
Examination are concerned, it is done through the Civil Services Examination and for the Indian Forest Service through the Indian Forest Service Examination held by the Commission.

The relevant Rules and Regulations provide that 33% of the vacancies in the IAS/IPS/IFS should be filled by promotion from amongst the officers of the State Service in consultation with the Commission. The Selection Committee presided over by Chairman/Member of the Commission consists of senior Government representatives of the Central Government and the State.

Mechanisation - Project SamperaThe Commission have recently undertaken a project called "SAMPERA" (Screening and Mechanised Processing of Examination and Recruitment Applications). A simplified single
sheet common application form for all the examinations has been devised which will be scanned by using OMR/ICR technology. The implementation of this project will mainly help in high speed scanning of data from forms eliminating manual entry. Other benefits will be accurate and faster generation of Admit Cards, Attendance lists with photo replica and signature facsimile of each candidate, and Error-free list of doubtful cases. The main aim of this project is to cope
with the increasing volume of applications through innovations and mechanised handling so as to reduce the processing time and send communications faster to minimised errors. The cases of impersonation/malpractices will also be eliminated and wasteful expenditure will be reduced.

In accordance with the provisions contained in Article 320 of the Constitution read with the provisions of Union Public Service Commission (Exemption from Consultation) Regulations
1958, Recruitment Rules of all Group 'A' and Group 'B" posts in various Ministries/Departments of Government of India are required to be framed in Consultation with the Commission. Consultation with the Commission is also necessary for framing/amending Recruitment Rules for certain categories of posts under the Employees State Insurance Corporation, The Delhi Municipal
Corporation, The New Delhi Municipal Council, Employees Provident Fund Organisation etc. under the relevant Acts made by Parliament in pursuance of the provisions of Article 321.

All proposals for framing/amending Recruitment Rules are examined keeping in view the cadre
structure of the organisation and the circulars issued by the Govt. from time to time. After approval, the Commissions' advice in the matter is communicated to the Ministry/Department concerned. More than 14000 Recruitment Rules have been framed/amended so far.
IAS Papers : Method of Making Notes

        There are different methods of making notes and one should decide which method suits you the best. There are two types of making notes, one is the LINEAR NOTES and the other PATTERN NOTES.

Linear Notes

        Let us start with Linear notes first, it is a method in which you condense the material you have read using headings and sub headings and jotting down the most important points. This method works best when making notes from a book where the material is already properly organised. But one disadvantage of this method is that you end up copying a lot of material from the book which defeats the very purpose of condensing.

The right way to use this method is to use loose sheets of paper instead of an exercise book since it is easier to keep adding information. It is a good idea to leave space on each sheet of paper for additional information. Another way to make your notes more interesting is to use colors, block letters, making boxes and highlighting as and when necessary. All this will immediately draw our attention to the actual contents of our notes and make it more clear and comprehensible.

Pattern Notes

        We now come to Pattern Notes. For this we have to begin the topic at the centre of the page. Each line radiating from it represents a branch of the main idea. Each point is written as briefly as possible using a key word or a phrase. It is a better method to adopt because it is more flexible than making Linear notes. One can add extra information to it at any point without any problem. Second
advantage is that we can see the whole pattern at one go without actually
turning the pages. Thirdly we can indicate the links between different topics
more easily than we can do in a linear method. Another advantage of pattern
notes is that it is exceptionally useful when making notes from memory for
revision as you keep jotting down points as and when they occur to you. This
makes it easier to revise for exams and writing out essays as only brief key
words are used. Lastly, it is easier to remember as notes is made in a shape
"There is no leader and there are no led. A leader, if one chooses to identity one, has to be a cultivator rather than a manufacturer. He has to provide the soil and the overall climate and the environment in which the seed can grow. One wants permissive individuals who do not have a compelling need to reassure themselves that they are leaders"- Vikram Sarabhai

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai's name will remain inseparable from India's
space programme. It is well known that it was Dr. Sarabhai who put India on the
international map in the field of space research. But he also made equally
pioneering contributions in other fields such as textiles, pharmaceuticals,
nuclear power, electronics and many others.

The most striking aspect of Dr. Sarabhai's personality was the range and breadth of his interests and the way in which he transformed his ideas into institutions. Sarabhai was a creative scientist, a successful and forward looking industrialist, an innovator of the highest order, a great institution builder, and an educationist with a difference, a connoisseur of arts, an entrepreneur of social change, a
pioneering management educator and more.

However, most importantly, he was a very warm human being with tremendous compassion for others. He was a man who could charm and win the hearts of all those who came in contact with him. He could instantly establish a personal rapport with those with whom he interacted. This was possible because he could convey a sense of respect and trustfulness to them and also a sense of his own trustworthiness.
A DreamerDr. Sarabhai was a dreamer with a seemingly unmatched
capacity for hard work. He was a visionary, who could not only see opportunities
but created some where none existed. To him the object of life, as Pierre Curie
(1859-1906), the French Physicist who was co-discoverer with his wife sMarie
Curie (1867-1934) of polonium and radium, has observed, was "to make life a
dream and to turn the dream into a reality".
What is more, Dr. Sarabhai
taught many others how to dream and to work towards realising the dream. The
success of India's space programme is a testimony to this. Dr. Sarabhai was a
"rare combination of an innovative scientist, forward looking industrial
organiser and imaginative builder of institutions for the economic, educational
and social upliftment of the country".
He had an excellent sense of economics and managerial skill. No problem was too minor to him. A large part of his time was taken up by his research activities and he continued to supervise research till his untimely death. Nineteen people did their Ph D work under his supervision. Dr.Sarabhai independently and in association with his colleagues published eighty-six research papers in national journals.

We are told that anybody, irrespective of his position in the organisation, could meet Sarabhai without any fear or feeling of inferiority and Dr. Sarabhai would
always offer him/her a seat and make him/her relax and talk on equal terms. He
believed in an individual's dignity and tried hard to preserve it. He was always
in search of a better and efficient way of doing things. Whatever he did, he did
it creatively. He displayed extreme care and concern for the younger people. He
had immense faith in their potentialities. He was always ready to provide
opportunities and freedom to them.
Early YearsDr. Vikram Sarabhai was born on August 12, 1919 into a wealthy family at Ahmedabad. During his childhood at his ancestral home, The Retreat at Ahmedabad, used to be visited by important people from all walks of life. This played an important role in the growth of Sarabhai's personality. His parents were Shri. Ambalal Sarabhai and Smt. Saraladevi Sarabhai.Vikram Sarabhai had his early education in the family school started by his mother Saraladevi on the line propounded by Madam Maria Montessori. After completing his Intermediate Science examination from Gujarat College, he went to Cambridge (UK) in 1937 where he obtained his Tripos in Natural Sciences in 1940. At the outbreak of the Second World War he returned to India and joined the Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore where he took up research in cosmic rays under the supervision of C.V. Raman. He published his first research paper entitled "Time Distribution of Cosmic Rays" in the Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences. Sarabhai's work on cosmic rays during the period 1940-45 included the study of the time variations of cosmic rays with Geiger-Muller counters at Bangalore and at the high level station in the Kashmir Himalayas.
After the war he returned to Cambridge to work for his PhD in cosmic ray physics. In 1947, he was awarded PhD by the Cambridge University for his thesis `Cosmic Ray investigation in Tropical Latitudes'. He also carried out an accurate measurement of the cross-section for the photo fission of U-238 by 6.2 MeV y-rays which formed a part of his PhD thesis. After getting his PhD, he returned to India and continued his research in cosmic ray physics. In India he studied interplanetary space, solar-terrestrial relationships and geomagnetism.
A Great Institution BuilderDr. Sarabhai was a great institution builder. He helped to establish a large number of institutions in diverse fields. Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association (ATIRA) was the first institution that Sarabhai helped to build. This assignment he undertook just after returning from Cambridge after obtaining a PhD in Cosmic ray physics. He had no formal training in textile technology.Formation of ATIRA was an important step towards modernising textile industry in India. At the time of establishing ATIRA there were no quality control techniques in majority of the textile mills. At ATIRA, Dr. Sarabhai created conditions for the interaction of different groups and different disciplines. While hiring personnel at ATIRA he ignored the requirement of experience.

Some of the most well-known institutions established by Dr.Sarabhai are: Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad; Indian Institute of Management(IIM), Ahmedabad;. Community Science Centre, Ahmedabad; Darpan Academy for Performing Arts, Ahmedabad; Vikram Sarabhai Space
Centre, Thiruvananthapuram; Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad; Faster Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam; Varaiable Energy Cyclotron Project, Calcutta; Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad and Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL), Jaduguda, Bihar.
Science with Culture
After the death of Dr. Homi J Bhabha in January 1966, Dr. Sarabhai was asked to assume the responsibilities of the office of the Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission. Sarabhai had realised the enormous potentialities inherent in space science and technology for a wide range of
social and economic development activities - communication, meterology/weather forecasting, and exploration for natural resources, to name only a few.The Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, established by Sarabhai pioneered research in space sciences and subsequently in space technology. Sarabhai also spearheaded the country's rocket technology. He played a pioneering role in the development of satellite TV broadcasting in India. Dr. Sarabhai was also a pioneer of the pharmaceutical industry in India.
He was among the very few in the pharmaceutical industry who recognised that the highest standards of quality should be established and maintained at any cost. It was Sarabhai who first implemented Electronic Data Processing and Operations Research Techniques in the pharmaceutical industry.
He played an important role in making India's pharmaceutical industry self-reliant and self-manufacture of many drugs and equipment in the country. Dr.Sarabhai was a man of deep cultural interests. He was interested in music,photography, archaeology, fine arts and so on. With his wife Mrinalini, he established Darpana, an institution devoted to the performing arts. His daughter, Mallika Sarabhai, grew up to be a leading exponent of Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi. He believed that a scientist should never shut himself up in an ivory tower or overlook the problems faced by the society in mere academic pursuit of pure science. Sarabhai was deeply concerned with the state of science education in the country.To improve the same he had established the Community Science Centre. Dr. Sarabhai died on December 30, 1971 at Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. In a befitting honour to this great Scientist, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) and associated space establishments at Thiruvananthapuram were renamed as the Vikram Sarabhai
Space Centre which has grown into a major space research centre of the Indian
Space Research Organisation (ISRO). In 1974, International Astronomical Union at Sydney decided that a Moon Crater BESSEL in the Sea of Serenity will be known as the Sarabhai Crater.
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All of us tend to look up to big
people for lessons on how to get better. We are keen to learn the secrets of
their success. But we forget that sometimes the biggest lessons in life come
from the smallest folks around us. Now that's a good lesson to

Take ants for instance. Would you believe those small creatures
can teach us how to live a better life? Jim Rohn - the great motivational guru –
developed what he called the 'Ants Philosophy'.

He identified four key
lessons from the behaviour of ants that can help us lead better lives. Jim Rohn
is no more – but his messages continue to inspire. Here then, are the four
lessons from Rohn's 'Ants Philosophy'.

1. Ants never quit. Have you
noticed how ants always look for a way around an obstacle? Put your finger in an
ant's path and it will try and go around it, or over it. It will keep looking
for a way out. It won't just stand there and stare. It won't give up and go

We should all learn to be like that. There will always be obstacles
in our lives. The challenge is to keep trying, keep looking for alternative
routes to get to our goals. Winston Churchill probably paraphrased the ant's
mindset when he offered this priceless advice: "Never give up. Never, never give

2. Ants think winter all summer. Remember the old story of the ant
and the grasshopper? In the middle of summer, the ant was busy gathering food
for the winter ahead – while the grasshopper was out having a good time. Ants
know that summer - the good times – won't last forever. Winters will come.
That's a good lesson to remember. When the going is good, don't be so arrogant
as to believe that a crisis or a setback cannot happen to you. Be good to other
people. Save for a rainy day. Look ahead. And remember, good times may not last,
but good people do.

3. Ants think summer all winter. As they suffer
through the unbearable cold of the winter, ants keep reminding themselves that
it won't last forever, and that summer will soon be here. And with the first
rays of the summer sun, the ants come out – ready to work, ready to play. When
we are down and seemingly out, when we go through what looks like a never-ending
crisis, it's good to remind ourselves that this too shall pass. Good times will
come. It's important to retain a positive attitude, an attitude that says things
will get better. As the old saying goes, tough times don't last. Tough people

4. Ants do all they possibly can. How much food does an ant gather in
summer? All that it possibly can! Now that's a great work ethic to have. Do all
you can! One ant doesn't worry about how much food another ant is collecting. It
does not sit back and wonder why it should have to work so hard. Nor does it
complain about the poor pay! Ants just do their bit. They gather all the food
they can. Success and happiness are usually the result of giving 100% - doing
all you possibly can. If you look around you, you'll find that successful people
are those who just do all they possibly can.

Follow the four simple steps
of Jim Rohn's 'Ant Philosophy' – and you'll see the difference. Don't quit. Look
ahead. Stay positive. And do all you can.

And there's just one more
lesson to learn from ants. Did you know that an ant can carry objects up to 20
times their own weight? Maybe we are like that too. We can carry burdens on our
shoulders and manage workloads that are far, far heavier than we'd imagine. Next
time something's bothering you and weighing you down, and you feel you just
can't carry on, don't fret. Think of the little ant. And remember, you too can
carry a lot more on your

World Heritage Sites in India-
Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage is both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seek to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972. At present there are 840 sites in 144 countries, which are in the list of world heritage. As of April 2009, 186 States Parties have ratified the World Heritage Convention.  There are 27 World Heritage Sites in India along with latest addition of Kalka-Shimla Railway line on 8th July 2008. A two member team of UNESCO World Heritage Committee is coming to India for a final inspection of the Matheran Light Railway (MLR), Mumbai on 25th October 2009. Apart from list of these 27 inscription sites, India has submitted a tentative list of many other sites in India. Here is a list of inscription World Heritage Sites in India-
  • Ellora Caves, Aurangabad, Maharashtra [1983]-
  • Ajanta Caves, Aurangabad, Maharashtra [1983]-
  • Agra Fort, Uttar-Pradesh [1983]-
  • Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar-Pradesh [1983]-
  • Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu [1984]-
  • Sun Temple, Konark, Orissa [1984]-
  • Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam [1985]-
  • Kaziranga National Park, Assam [1985]-
  • Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan [1985]-
  • Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. Place is known for thousands of rare and highly endangered birds such as the Siberian Crane come here during the winter season. The park was a hunting ground for the maharajas of Bharatpur, a tradition dating back to 1850, and duck shoots were organised yearly in honor of the British viceroys.
  • Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh [1986]-
  • Group of Monuments at Hampi, Karnataka [1986]-
  • Churches and Convents of Goa [Basilica of Bom Jesus], [1986]-
  • Fetahpur Sikri, Uttar-Pradesh [1986]-
  • Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal [1987]-
  • Great Living Chola Temples, Tamil Nadu [1987]-
  • There are total 3 main temples under tag of “Great Living Chola Temples”. Only 1 Temple [Brihadiswara Temple at Tanjavur] out of these 3 temples has been listed in world heritage sites in 1987 but later in 2004 other two temples at Darasuram [Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram] also added in the list.
  1. Brihadiswara Temple [Built of Granite by Chola King Rajaraja I (1009-1012)]
  2. Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram [Built by Rajendra I (1012-1044)]
  3. Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram [Built by Rajaraja II (AD 1143-1173)]
  • Elephanta Caves, Mumbai, Maharashtra [1987]-
  • Group of Monuments at Pattadakal, Karnataka [1987]-
  • Nanda Devi & Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttrakhand [1988]-
  • Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh [1989]-
  • Qutub Minar and its Monuments, Delhi [1993]-
  • Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi [1993]-
  • Mountain Railways of India [1999]-
  • There have been 4 sites under Indian Railway which are listed with world heritage sites tag. Out of these 4 sites 3 comes under the tag of Mountain Railway of India mentioned as follows-
  1. Mountain Railways of India, Darjeeling, West Bengal
  2. Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Tamil Nadu
  3. Kalka-Shimla Railway, Himachal Pradesh [Latest addition in the list on 8th July 2008]
  4. 4th Site comes under Indian Railway but doesn’t come Mountain Railway i.e. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), Mumbai
  • Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya [2002]-
  • Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh [2003]-
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), Mumbai [2004]
  • Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat [2004]-
  • The Red Fort complex, New Delhi [2007]-
Recently an expert team of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) led by Dr. Gion Caprez visited India to evaluate The Matheran Light Railway, Maharashtra for inscription as a World Heritage Site
What is concept of Human Development Index [HDI]-?
The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index used to rank the countries on the basis of developed, developing, or underdeveloped country based upon human development in that country.
It is being used since 1990. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and India’s Nobel prize Winner Economist Amartya Sen [Noble prize winner of 1998]
It is prepared by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
It is a composite of 3 factors-
  • Life      Expectancy at birth or life expectancy at birth also called LEI (Life      Expectancy Index)
  • Standard      of Knowledge & Education : Adult Literacy Rate also called EAI      (Education Attainment Index) given 2/3 priority and Gross Enrollment Ratio      (GER) given 1/3 priority (weight age)
  • Standard      of living measured by natural logarithm of gross domestic product per      capita also called SLI (Standard of Living Index)
The latest report is of year 2008. It was a new index was released on December 18, 2008. It was called “statistical update” and it covers the period up to 2006 and was originally published without an accompanying report on human development. The update is relevant due to newly released estimates of purchasing power parities (PPP), implying substantial adjustments for many countries, resulting in changes in HDI values and, in many cases, HDI ranks. Here are the salient features of this report (memorable points):-
  1. It      was launched in December 2008
  2. It      includes 177 UN members plus Hong Kong plus Palestinian territories.
  3. Countries      fall into three broad categories based on their HDI: high, medium and low      human development.
  4. Iceland      is the top of this list with HDI of 0.968.
  5. India’s      Rank is 134 with HDI of 0.609 [it was 132th in 2008 with HDI of      0.619]
  6. Top      5 countries are Iceland, Norway, Canada, Australia and Ireland
  7. Japan      Tops the list in Asia (0.956)
  8. Libya      Tops the list in Africa (0.840)
  9. Canada      has an Higher HDI (0.967) than USA (0.950)
  10. Since      1990, Japan, Norway, Iceland & Canada only have been able to get a top      slot in this index
Indian States [Languages, Religion and Notable points]-
S.   No.NameLocal   LanguageFamous   Things
J & K
Urdu, Kashmiri & Dogri. Urdu written in the   Persian script is the official language of the state.
Under Article 370, Separate   Constitution, 6 Year assembly term
Only State where Muslims are in   Majority
Since 1990, the Armed Forces Act is   applicable to J&K [criticized by Human Right Activists]
Only 4% population is under BPL
Ambitious Kashmir   Railway project which is being constructed by Konkani Railway Corporation and IRCON
Vaishno   Devi and Amarnath
Gulmarg, one of   the most popular ski resort destinations in India & home to the   world’s highest green golf course
Monastic Fest, Buddhism is an integral   part of Ladakh’s culture
Dumhal is a famous dance in the Kashmir   valley, performed by men
2.Himachal   PradeshHindi, Bilaspuri &   PahariLocated in Western HimalayasMaximum Population belongs to   Rural [92%]
Abundance of perennial rivers
The economy of the state is highly   dependent on three sources- hydroelectric power, tourism and agriculture
Least corrupt after Kerala
Fruit bowl of the country
Flower basket of the world
Well known habitat to a variety of   animals. It has 12 major national parks and sanctuaries – the largest number   in the Himalayan region. Musk Deer is State Animal of HP
Himachal has a rich heritage of handicrafts
The Kalka-Shimla Railway track has a length of   96 kilometers recently included in World Heritage List
There are 3 domestic Airports in State   but  No international Airport
Kangra Painting
3.UttrakhandaHindi, Kumaoni, & GarhwaliThe High Court of the state is in Nainital27th State of Republic of   India [2000]
Well known as the birthplace of the Chipko environmental movement
The native people of Uttrakhanda are   generally called either Kumaoni or Garhwal
Many Holy sites of India Like Haridwar,   Kedarnath, Badrinath,   Gangotri, Yamunotri & Rishikesh located in the State
Rishikesh is widely considered the Yoga capital of the world.
Jim Corbett National Park (the oldest   national park of India) at Ramnagar in Nainital District
Valley of Flowers National Park and Nanda Devi National Park in Chamoli   District [UNESO world heritage site]
Rajaji National Park in Haridwar District
Top Tourist destination of India due to   hill-stations of Nainital, Mussoorie, Almora, Kausani, Bhimtal and Ranikhet
Mindroling Monastery & Shri Bheema   Shankar Mandir
Kartik Purnima
4.PunjabPunjabi, The Punjabi   language, written in the Gurumukhi script is the official and most   commonly used language in the stateGolden Temple, Bhangra & BaisakhiHighest per capita income and Human Development Index in India
Punjab is a fertile plain of India   [Alluvial Soil]
There are a number of wetlands, bird   sanctuaries and zoological parks all over Punjab
Cobra is common snake in Punjab
The holiest of Sikh Shrines, the   Shri Harmandir Sahib Ji (or Golden   Temple), is in The Holy city of Amritsar
The Sri Akal Takht Sahib Ji which resides within   the Golden temple complex is the temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five   Takhts (Temporal Seats) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab
Anandpur   Sahib is where Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa on Baisakhi
Professor Har Gobind Khorana, famous Nobel   laureate & biotechnologist was educated at Punjab University.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Award (a   very prestigious award) is associated with Punjab
The first ever Asian Member of the US   Congress, Dr. Dalip Singh Saund, was a Punjabi as was Kalpana   Chawla, the famous US astronaut.
5.HaryanaHindi, Haryanvi & Khadi BoliHaryana has the 3rd highest per capita income in the countryDuring the Indian rebellion of 1857, several   leaders from this region, including Rao   Tula Ram, participated actively
Rainfall is varied, with the Sivalik   Hills region being the wettest and the Aravalli Hills region being the driest
Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Haryana.
Establishment of Nano City a joint venture between   the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation   (HSIIDC) and Nano Works Developers Private Ltd, a company promoted by Sabeer   Bhatia, the much talked about creator of Hotmail will further   boost the state position in this sector.
Haryana was the first State in the   country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970
Haryana has adopted a new sports policy   on August 21, 2009
What is Politics-?
Politics refers to the relationship between government and society
What is Political Science-?
Political Science is concerned with a systematic study of ‘politics’ in human societies. Integration and Conflict are two sides of coin “Politics.”
What is State-?
State is a social organisation with a fixed territory and stability in society living within that territory. State is distinguished from other forms of social organisation in terms of sovereign power exercised by it. Here Sovereignty is defined as undisputed legal authority over a territory.
In ancient India, the Saptanga Theory of State elaborated in Kautilya’s Arthshastra mentions seven elements — Swami, Amatya, Janpada, Durga, Kosa, Danda and Mitra. In the west, writers like Harold
J. Laski and J.W. Garner have referred to four elements of state as follows-
  1. Population
  2. Territory
  3. Government
  4. Sovereignty      [Central theme]
What is Government-?
The state has to exercise sovereign power over the territory and the people within its jurisdiction. For doing this it needs an organisation with persons exercising power on its behalf. Government is such an organisation of the state, with defined powers and functions for the different organs [Legislature, Executive and Judiciary] of the governments. Government of a State can be democratic or non-democratic, unitary or federal and Presidential or Parliamentary.
What about Indian State-?
The origin of State in India is as old as Vedas, when Dharma was the cardinal principle of Politics in India. Manusmiriti is the earliest text to elaborate the principles of social life, propounds decentralization and welfare activities as the basis of the state organisation. Gradually ancient state has evolved into modern state. John Locke propounded the Doctrine of Consent and John Stuart Mill gave much importance to representative and responsible government.
The concept of Nation refers to sense of belongings from a particular State or Region. A society claims distinction on the basis of some common characteristics of its people. Some characteristics that form the basis of such a claim are: lineage, culture, language, religion, territory, race, and so on. The idea of nation and the process of nationalism emphasize the sense of solidarity, and resemblances on various grounds. A sense of belonging among the people is provided by these factors either singly or in combination turned out as a Nation.
Nation Building-
This is the process of consolidation of various social groups [whole population] under a common tag. It is one of the main objectives of the sate to maximize the level of integration in society which is known as Nation Building.
Political System-
The political system of a state refers to the sum total of ideology or principles on which government of a State has been organised to discharge its duties or functions towards Citizens and to exercise the sovereign power of State. The political system of modern states are organised on the basis of constitution of a particular state.
Classification of Government-
Government of a modern state can be classified into various forms like democratic or autocratic, unitary or federal and parliamentary or presidential etc. This classification of government usually based upon the following factors-
S. No.Basis/FactorsType of Government
1.Nature of exercise of   powerDemocratic or   Autocratic
2.Nature of executive   agencyParliamentary or   Presidential
3.Territorial   distribution of powerFederal or Unitary
4.Nature of constitutionHard or Soft
Political Culture-
Political Culture of a country refers to a set of beliefs and attitudes prevailed in a particular political society.
Political Socialization-
The process by which a particular set of attitudes, belief and orientations is passed on from one generation to another is known as political socialization. It is study of “what, when and how people learn about politics”. Inter-generational continuity is the essence of political culture. The willingness of people to accept new ideas and beliefs is a matter of learnt behaviour. Thus, the learning process to acquire existing political culture is known as political socialization. Individuals acquire certain social obligations through ordinary course of interactions. Process of political socializations is not necessarily a conscious process. Various factors such as international developments, domestic transformations, historical events, and social stirrings shape the process of political socialization. There is a direct linkage between political culture and political socialization. Political socialization is the process by which political cultures are formed, maintained and changed. Thus, it is important to study the process of political socialization in order to understand political stability and development of political system. An individual acquires a particular belief, value and attitude towards politics of a state through manifest and latent transmission of information. The teaching of civics syllabus in the schools is an example of manifest political socialization. Latent political socialization process implies transmission of non-political attitudes towards prevalent institutions in a political system. It involves the fundamental aspects of culture in a political system. Political socialization takes place through a variety of institutions and situations. These are family, peer groups, educational institutions, secondary groups/such as work place, the mass media, government and political party machineries.
Who makes Government in a State i.e. Political Parties-
Political Party refers to a political or social institution with a common ideology. Party system in a state varies from state to state as one party system, two party system and multi party system
Political Participation-
The study of political participation implies the study of actual involvement of people in the decision-making process rather than popular attitude of becoming involved. It refers to the involvement of mango peoples in policy making, implementing and its evaluation. In contemporary context effective participation of citizens in decision-making process has been emphasized through decentralization of power. Effective political participation is also achieved through the various emerging concepts like pressure groups, interest groups, civil society and NGO’s.
Political Development-
Political Development refers to gradual changes occurred into the political structure and political culture of a state during a certain time period. Political development is related to increasing governmental efficiency in the use of human and material resources of the nation for the common good. It also highlighted the notion of national political capacity or efficiency. Political development it refers to the capacity building of the government in discharging its duties or responsibilities. The concept of political capacity referred only to two basic areas of development: ability of a government to collect revenues from its subjects to implement its preferred policies and its ability to mobilize human resources.
Cardinal Theories of Politics-
An ideology based on a commitment to individualism, consent and toleration: modern liberalism differs from classical liberalism. According to this ideology economic system is based upon Laissez-faire approach and it advocated *capitalism. Ideology also advocated the concept of free market and liberalization. Almost all developed countries on globe supported this ideology
*A type of economic system which precedes socialism or communism. It is based on private ownership of the means of production and on the exploitation of the wage labour.
A political ideology based on the principle of state ownership of resources and industry along with responsibility of socio-economic development. Socialism is a clear contrast to Laissez faire and advocated more interference from government side. Traditional Socialism is different from ** democratic socialism.
    • **Democratic      Socialism refers to a mixed ideology aiming at bringing about      socialism through democratic means. The ideology was consciously      articulated by Nehru and endorsed by the Indian Parliament from time to      time.
      This ideology was advocated and founded by Karl Marx. Marxism is based upon the principle of classless society. Lenin of former USSR and Mayo of China were the main supporter of this ideology. Marx advocated replacement of capitalism by communism.
      Fascism refers to a political ideology which advocates an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism). NAZI party of Germany under leadership of Adolf Hitler and Italy’s Mussolini were the prime advocator of this ideology
      One more political or economic ideology put forward by Mahatma Gandhi of India is known as Gandhism. This ideology is based upon the principle of non-violence and decentralization of power to local government
      Few important terms in Polity-
      This is a French term signifying citizen class or working class. The term is frequently used by Marxist socialists to denote the class of proprietors, capitalists, manufacturers, merchants, persons with a business of their own and members of liberal professions as opposed to the ‘proletariat’ who live only by selling their labour.
      In ancient Rome the property–less class which served the state by producing children proles. However, the most prevalent usage refers to the one developed by Marx. In this sense proletariat includes those in industry, agriculture and intellectual posts who live by the sale of their labour, as opposed to the capitalist bourgeoisie.
      This term denotes a group of persons who hold positions of eminence in society. The term is also used to refer to leaders in different fields, e.g. political elite and business elite.
      Trade Union-
      An association of wage earners of workers for the purpose of improving their conditions and protecting their interests
      A movement of labour unions which favored “direct action” culminating in a revolutionary general strike to secure workers’ ownership and control of industry. It originated under the influence of Robert Owen and acquired its more violent aspects in France besides getting its name from the word ‘Syndicate’ (union trade).
      Indian Polity-
      The preamble of Indian constitution says that India is a Sovereign [undisputed legal right of Indian citizens over the state], Socialist [adhere to socialism ideology], Secular [without any religion and equal respect for all prevailed ones], Democratic [government by the people or by their elected representatives] Republic [A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens] country.
      Some cardinal features of Indian Polity incorporated by Indian Constitution-
      • Written
      • Partially rigid and partially flexible
      • Impartial Judiciary with Judicial Review
      • Directive Principles of State Policy
      • Universal Adult franchise
      • Emergency Provisions
      • Power distribution between Union and State on      doctrine of “Pitch and Substance.”
      • Independent Agencies like UPSC, EC and CAGI
      • Positive Discrimination
      • PRI
      Government FormParliamentary Government on   lines of British Parliament
      Nature of StateQuasi-Federal [India is union   of states but centre is more powerful]
      Executive agency of GovernmentLegislature and executive   organs are based upon the fusion principle not on separation of power like in   USA
      LibertyFundamental Rights and   Independent Judiciary
      Who made Indian Constitution-?
      Indian Constitution was drafted and adopted by a Constituent Assembly that was not elected directly by the people. In fact, the Legislative Assemblies of the Indian Provinces elected it indirectly. The Assemblies themselves were elected in 1946 according to the provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935. The Constituent Assembly could be called real representative of the people because it had representation of almost all shades of opinions. The words socialist and secular added into preamble of India constitution by 42nd Amendment Act in 1976. Here it should be noted that Mr. K. T. Shah [then member of constitution assembly] advocated addition of these word into preamble but move was strongly opposed by Nehru. Here are few important details regarding development of Indian constitution-
      • Cabinet      Mission recommended the establishment of constitution assembly
      • Each      province was allotted seats in constitution assembly in proportion of its      population and members were elected from provincial legislative assemblies indirectly
      • Total      member of constitution assembly was 385. Out of which 93 were  representative of Indian States and rest were from British Indian council.Total 205 members were from Indian national congress. After partition  total number members of constitutional assembly reduced to 299 but of whom    284 members were actually present and signed on the final Indian      Constitution on 26th November 1949.
      • The  main communities recognized for appropriate representation were General,  Muslim and Sikh
      • 1st meeting of Constitution Assembly-   9-23,      December 1946
      • Objective      Resolution of Indian Constitution put forward by Nehru on 13th December 1946 and adopted by assembly on 22nd Jan 1947 after a  comprehensive debate
      • Dr.Sinha was elected as temporary president of Constitution Assembly who later replaced by Dr. Rajendra Prasad
      • Constitution  assembly worked through various individual committees on separate subject      matter which later drafted into a single unified document by Drafting  Committee of Constitution Assembly
      • Drafted Committee was established in 1947 under chairmanship of Mr. B. R. Ambedkar
      • 11th last meeting and adoption-   26th November 1949
      • Full  adoption or ratification-26th January 1950 [this date was choosed because on the same date earlier National Congress adopted Indian Constitution in 1930s]
      • It  took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame Indian Constitution
      Important Committees established by Constitution Assembly-
      Committee on the Rules of ProcedureDr. Rajendra Prasad
      Steering CommitteeDo
      Finance and Staff CommitteeDo
      Ad hoc Committee on the National FlagDo
      Credential or Bonafide CommitteeAlladi Krishnaswami Ayyar
      House CommitteeB. Pattabhi Sitaramayya
      Order of Business CommitteeK. M. Munshi
      Committee on the Functions of the Constituent AssemblyG. V. Mavalanker
      States CommitteeJawahar Lal Nehru
      Union Powers CommitteeDo
      Union Constitution CommitteeDo
      Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and   Tribal and Excluded AreasSardar Patel
      Minorities Sub-CommitteeH. C. Mukherjee
      Fundamental Rights Sub-CommitteeJ. B. Kriplani
      North-East Frontier Tribal Areas CommitteeGopinath Bardoloi
      Drafting CommitteeB. R. Ambedkar
      Various provisions copied from outside sources in Indian Constitution-
      The Constitution of India, as opted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949, was not something absolutely new. It was, to a great extent, influenced by the Government of India Act of 1935 that was passed by the British Parliament. In addition Constitution Assembly copied many provisions from the already working constitution of various countries which makes Indian Constitution most lengthy and comprehensive document in world of constitution. The provisions took by constitution assembly from various country’s constitutions are as follows-
      S. No.ProvisionSource
      1.Federal Structure, Office of Governor, Power   Division, Judiciary and   Public service commissionGOI Act 1935
      2.Parliamentary system, Rule of Law, Single   Citizenship, Office of CAG, Legislation,   Cabinet form of govt., Prerogative writs and BicameralismBritain
      3.Fundamental Rights, Judicial Review, Office of   Vice-President, Independence of Judiciary, Impeachment of President and   Impeachment process of SC and HCs JudgesUSA
      4.Quasi Federal Structure with strong center   [residuary powers], Appointment   of state governors by center and Advisory/review role of supreme courtCanada
      5.Concurrent List [List III], Freedom of trade, Commerce and   interstate trade, Joint Sitting of ParliamentAustralia
      6.Preamble & Fundamental DutiesUSSR
      7.Emergency Provisions and suspension of rights   during emergencyWeimer constitution of Germany
      8.Amendment Procedure, Indirect election of RS   members and PRIsSouth Africa
      9.Directive Principles of State Policy, Election   process of President & Nomination of members by PresidentIrish Constitution of Ireland
      10.Procedures established by lawJapan
      11.Idea of Justice in SOCIAL, EDUCATION, ECONOMIC and   POLITICALRussian Revolution, 1917
      12.Idea of Liberty, Equality and fraternityFrench Revolution, 1789-1799
      Indian Parliament-
      What   is Parliament?
      According to the Constitution of India, the union legislative body is called   the Parliament. The Hindi term for Parliament is Sansad.  The Parliament includes the President and the   two Houses – the Council of States (Rajya   Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). This kind of system, with two Houses, is called a   bicameral legislature
      Rajya   Sabha-

      The   Rajya Sabha (Council of States) is the Upper House of Parliament. The House   has a maximum of 250 members, out of which 12 members are nominated by the   President for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature, science,   and social services. The remaining 238 members are elected by the members of   the legislative bodies from the States and Union Territories.  The Rajya   Sabha is a permanent body and unlike the Lok Sabha, it cannot be dissolved at   any time.
      Each   member of the Rajya Sabha serves for a term of six years. But one third of   its members retire at the expiration of every two years. The Vice-President   of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. It, however, elects a   Deputy Chairman from among its members who takes care of the day-to-day   working of the House.  Both Houses have equal legislative powers except   in the area of finance where the Lok Sabha is given overriding   powers.
      Lok   Sabha-

      The   Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the Lower House of Parliament. The members   are directly elected to the House. The electorate consists of all citizens   who have attained 18 years of age and are otherwise not disqualified to vote   under the law. Under the Constitution, the maximum strength of the Lok Sabha   can be 552 members. The Constitution provides that up to 530 members would   represent territorial constituencies in the states, up to 20 members would   represent the Union Territories, and two members would be appointed by the   President to represent the Anglo-Indian community if there is inadequate   representation of the community.
      The   minimum age for qualification as a member of the Lok Sabha is 25 years. Each   Lok Sabha is formed for a period of five years, at the end of which the House   is dissolved. The House can be dissolved before the completion of the term or   it can be extended by a Proclamation of Emergency. The period of extension   cannot exceed one year at a time.  A Speaker and a Deputy Speaker,   elected by the members of the Lok Sabha, conduct day to day business. The   Deputy Speaker presides during the absence of the Speaker.
      What   are the functions of Parliament?
      Parliament has four primary functions- to make laws, to sanction government   expenditure, to oversee the work of the government, and to represent the   interests of the people. In the Indian system, the Council of Ministers are   also Members of Parliament (that is, there is an overlap of the legislative   and executive functions for several members) For those members who are part   of the Council of Ministers, there is an additional responsibility of the   executive as compared to those who are not in the Council of   Ministers.  The broad functions of Parliament can be described as   follows-
      • Legislative   responsibility- To   pass laws
      • Oversight   responsibility- To   ensure that the executive (i.e. government) performs its duties   satisfactorily
      • Representative   responsibility- To   represent the views and aspirations of the people of their constituency in   Parliament
      • “Power of the Purse”   responsibility- To   approve and oversee the revenues and expenditures proposed by the   government

      What   constitutes the Government of India?
      The   President is the formal, constitutional head of the Republic of India. After   the Lok Sabha elections, the President invites the leader of the party or   parties with the majority of votes in the Lok Sabha to form the Government.    The President appoints the leader of the majority party as the Prime   Minister and on the advice of the Prime Minister appoints other ministers.   The ministers can be chosen from both Houses of Parliament. The political   power is vested with the Prime Minister and his team of ministers – the   Council of Ministers.  The Council of Ministers constitutes the Government of India and the   government is headed by the Prime Minister.  The Council of Ministers,   headed by the Prime Minister, (together forming the Executive) is responsible   for the governance of the country and is collectively responsible to the Lok   Sabha. If the Lok Sabha passes a motion of no-confidence against the Council   of Ministers, the term of the Government comes to an end.    As the   leader of the majority, the Prime Minister is also the Leader of the Lok   Sabha. He has to perform certain parliamentary functions like proposing dates   of calling the House in session to the Speaker and drawing up the programme   of official business.  The leader of the largest party in opposition in   each House is designated as the Leader of the Opposition. Till 18th December 2009 leader of opposition in LS was Mr. L. K. Aadvani but at present   he has replaced by Susma Swaraj
      What   is the role of the President of India with regard to Parliament?
      The President is the constitutional head of Republic of India, directly   elected by an electoral college that includes elected members of both Houses   of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the   States.  The President performs certain constitutional functions-
      • The   President invites the leader of the majority party to form the Government   after a new Lok Sabha is duly elected
      • The   President nominates 12 members of the Rajya Sabha and has the right to   nominate two members from the Anglo Indian community to the Lok Sabha if they   are under-represented
      • On   the advice of the Executive, the President summons the two Houses of   Parliament to meet from time to time
      • The   President has the power to discontinue a session in the two Houses and   dissolve the Lok Sabha (in consultation with the Executive)
      • The   President has to agree to sign a Bill before it can become a law
      • If   the Houses are not in session, the President can enact or promulgate   Ordinances having the same validity as a law passed in Parliament.
      • The   President has the power to appoint the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the   Chairman of Rajya Sabha on an interim basis
      • The   President has the right to address either or both Houses of Parliament
      • The President has the   power to call both Houses for a joint sitting in case a dispute arises over   passing a Bill. In the joint sitting, the matter is decided by majority vote

      What   are the special powers of Rajya Sabha?
      Rajya   Sabha enjoys certain special powers. They are as follows-
      • Rajya   Sabha can declare that it would be in the national interest for the Parliament   to make laws on any subject in the State List
      • Rajya   Sabha is empowered to make laws creating one or more All India Services,   which would be common to the Union and State, if it is deemed to serve the   national interest. The services such as the Indian Administrative Service,   Indian Police Service, and All-India Judicial Service are part of the All   India Services.
      What do you mean by Youth Parliament Competition-?
      In order to develop democratic ethos in the younger generation the Ministry conducts Youth Parliament Competition in various categories of schools and colleges/universities. The Youth Parliament Scheme was first introduced in the Schools in Delhi in 1966-67. Kendriya Vidyalayas located in and around Delhi were incorporated into the ongoing Scheme for Delhi Schools in 1978. Subsequently, as separate scheme of Youth Parliament for Kendriya Vidyalayas at the National Level was launched in 1988. Similarly, in 1997-98, two new Youth Parliament Schemes at the national level, one for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and the other for Universities/Colleges were launched. During 2008-09, the 43rd Youth Parliament Competition for Delhi Schools was completed and 33 schools had participated. The 21st National Youth Parliament Competition for Kendriya Vidyalayas was held and 90 Kendriya Vidyalayas participated. The 12th National Youth Parliament Competition for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas was completed. The Ninth National Youth Parliament Competition for Universities/Colleges is in progress