3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.

The following standards are typically branded 3G:

  • the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
    • The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA.
    • The TD-SCDMA radio interface, was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China.
    • The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
  • the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstreams.

The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAXstandards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.

A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1981/1982. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmission technology. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G, but is a pre-4G or 3.9G technology, however sometimes branded "4G" by the service providers. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4Gtechnology. WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G.




KASUMI is a block cipher used in UMTS, GSM, and GPRS mobile communications systems. In UMTS KASUMI is used in the confidentiality (f8) and integrity algorithms (f9) with names UEA1 and UIA1, respectively. [1] In GSM KASUMI is used in the A5/3 key stream generator and in GPRS in the GEA3 key stream generator.

KASUMI was designed for 3GPP to be used in UMTS security system by the Security Algorithms Group of Experts (SAGE), a part of the European standards body ETSI. [2] Because of schedule pressures in 3GPP standardization, instead of developing a new cipher, SAGE agreed with 3GPP technical specification group (TSG) for system aspects of 3G security (SA3) to base the development on an existing algorithm that had already undergone some evaluation.[2] They chose the cipher algorithm MISTY1 developed [3] and patented [4] by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. The original algorithm was slightly modified for easier hardware implementation and to meet other requirements set for 3G mobile communications security.

KASUMI is named after the original algorithm MISTYkasumi (霞) is the Japanese word for "mist".

In January 2010, Orr Dunkelman, Nathan Keller, and Adi Shamir, released a paper showing that they could break Kasumi with a related key attack and very modest computational resources. Interestingly, the attack is ineffective against MISTY.[5]


Block cipher

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Block crypto)

In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation. A block cipher encryption algorithm might take (for example) a 128-bit block of plaintext as input, and output a corresponding 128-bit block of ciphertext. The exact transformation is controlled using a second input — the secret key. Decryption is similar: the decryption algorithm takes, in this example, a 128-bit block of ciphertext together with the secret key, and yields the original 128-bit block of plain text.

A message longer than the block size (128 bits in the above example) can still be encrypted with a block cipher by breaking the message into blocks and encrypting each block individually. However, in this method all blocks are encrypted with the same key, which degrades security (because each repetition in the plaintext becomes a repetition in the ciphertext). To overcome this issue, modes of operation are used to make encryption probabilistic. Some modes of operation, despite the fact that their underlying implementation is a block cipher, allow the encryption of individual bits. The resulting cipher is called a stream cipher.

An early and highly influential block cipher design was the Data Encryption Standard (DES), developed at IBM and published as a standard in 1977. A successor to DES, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), was adopted in 2001.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A5/1 is a stream cipher used to provide over-the-air communication privacy in the GSM cellular telephone standard. It was initially kept secret, but became public knowledge through leaks and reverse engineering. A number of serious weaknesses in the cipher have been identified.


Stream cipher

In cryptography, a stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext bits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher bit stream (keystream), typically by an exclusive-or (xor) operation. In a stream cipher the plaintext digits are encrypted one at a time, and the transformation of successive digits varies during the encryption. An alternative name is a state cipher, as the encryption of each digit is dependent on the current state. In practice, the digits are typically single bits or bytes.

Stream ciphers represent a different approach to symmetric encryption from block ciphers. Block ciphers operate on large blocks of digits with a fixed, unvarying transformation. This distinction is not always clear-cut: in some modes of operation, a block cipher primitive is used in such a way that it acts effectively as a stream cipher. Stream ciphers typically execute at a higher speed than block ciphers and have lower hardware complexity. However, stream ciphers can be susceptible to serious security problems if used incorrectly: see stream cipher attacks — in particular, the same starting state must never be used twice.


Difference between Mandarin and Cantonese

Mandarin is the official language of China and is spoken by many more people worldwide than Cantonese. Cantonese (or Yue) is one of the five major Chinese languages. These are often called "dialects," but in actuality their differences are great enough to consider them separate languages.

Cantonese is spoken by about 100 million people in the southern provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi and in neighboring areas such as Hong Kong and Macau, as well as throughout South-East Asia in such places as Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Due to the migration of Cantonese speakers from Hong Kong and the Guangdong area, Cantonese is the dominant form of Chinese spoken in the Chinatowns of many major cities in the United States, Canada, Australia and elsewhere.

The word Cantonese comes from Canton, the former English name of Guangzhou, capital of Guangdong, which was once considered the home of the purest form of Cantonese. However, through years of mass media and pop culture influence, Hong Kong is now regarded as the cultural center of Cantonese.

Although Mandarin (or putonghua) is the standard and official language in mainland China, it has been around for only about 700 or 800 years, compared to the 2000-year history of Cantonese. Cantonese has been the dominant language in overseas Chinese communities. This comes from the fact that, around the world, the first and largest flow of Chinese immigrants originates from Hong Kong.

Cantonese is mainly an oral language. People in Hong Kong use standard Chinese (putonghua) when they read and write. They speak Cantonese in their daily interactions with people. As a colloquial language, Cantonese is full of slang and nonstandard usage. The language of youth is rapidly evolving, and new slang and trendy expressions are constantly emerging.

The standard written language in Hong Kong is essentially the same Chinese as everywhere else in China. The only difference is that Hong Kong and overseas communities, like Taiwan, have kept what are called traditional characters, whereas mainland China uses simplified characters. In an attempt to increase literacy in China, thousands of characters were "simplified" in a 1950 spelling reform initiated by chairman Mao Zedong.






The languages of India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-European languagesIndo-Aryan (spoken by 72% of Indians) and the Dravidian languages (spoken by 25% of Indians).[1] Other languages spoken in India belong to the Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Burman, and a few minor language families and isolates.[2]

The principal official language of the Republic of India is Standard Hindi, while English is the secondary official language.[3] The constitution of India states that "The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script."[4] Neither the Constitution of India nor Indian law specifies a national language, a position supported by a High Court ruling.[5] However, languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian constitution are sometimes referred to, without legal standing, as the national languages of India.[6][7]

Individual mother tongues in India number several hundred;[8] the 1961 census recognized 1,652[9] (SIL Ethnologue lists 415). According to Census of India of 2001, 29 languages are spoken by more than a million native speakers, 122 by more than 10,000. Three millennia of language contact has led to significant mutual influence among the four language families in India and South Asia. Two contact languages have played an important role in the history of India: Persian and English.[10]



The official language of the Indian Union is Hindi with English as an additional language for official work;[1] states in India can legislate their own official languages.[1] Neither the Constitution of India, nor any Indian law defines any national language.[2]

States specify their own official language(s) through legislation. The section of the Constitution of India dealing with official languages therefore includes detailed provisions[3] which deal not just with the languages used for the official purposes of the union,[4] but also with the languages that are to be used for the official purposes of each state and union territory in the country,[5] and the languages that are to be used for communication between the union and the states inter se.[6]

During the British Raj, English was used for most official purposes both at the federal level and in the various states.[7] The Indian constitution adopted in 1950, envisaged the gradual phasing in of Hindi, to replace English over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter.[8] But resistance to making Hindi the sole official language has resulted in English being retained for official uses. English continues to be used today, in combination with Hindi (at the central level and in some states) and other languages (at the state level).

The legal framework governing the use of languages for official purpose currently includes the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, and various state laws, as well as rules and regulations made by the central government and the states.



Languages of India

There are 15 national languages recognized by the Indian constitution and these are spoken in over 1600 dialects. The national or official languages are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English (Associate Official). An estimated 850 languages are in daily use (Todd and Hancock 1986).

Other languages spoken in India include Judeo-Iraqi Arabic, Armenian, Burushaski, Western Farsi, Geman Deng, Lisu, Northern Pashto, Portuguese, Russian, Thami, Chitwania Tharu, Kathoriya Tharu, Uyghur, Walungge, Arabic and Chinese.

India's official language is Hindi in the Devnagri script. However, English continues to be the official working language. For many educated Indians, English is virtually their first language, and for a great number of Indians who are multilingual, it will probably be the second. The literacy rate of India is between 36% to 52%.

India has a wide variety of local languages and in many cases the state boundaries have been drawn on linguistic lines. Besides Hindi and English, the other popular languages are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

Some Indian languages have evolved from the Indo-European group of languages. This set is known as the Indic group of languages. The other set of languages are Dravidian and are native to South India, though a distinct influence of Sanskrit and Hindi is evident in these languages. Most of the Indian languages have their own script and are spoken in the respective states along with English.

Languages of India in the Language Sets


Gujarati is the state language of Gujarat, a western state of India, and is spoken by 70 percent of the state's population. More than 46 million people worldwide consider Gujarati as their first language. Apart from Gujarat, it is widely spoken in the states of Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Worldwide it is spoken in the United Kingdom, the United States, Kenya, South Africa, East Africa, Uganda, Fiji, Singapore and New Zealand.

46 million first-language speakers

Gujarat; Maharashtra; Rajasthan; Karnataka; Madhya Pradesh

Also spoken in Bangladesh, Fiji, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Oman, Pakistan, Reunion, Singapore, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, UK, USA, Zambia, Zimbabwe



Hindi is spoken mainly in the northern part of India; however, it is widely understood across all of India, except by about 40 percent of the population in a few states of southern India.

It is not easy to delimit the borders of the Hindi-speaking region. Outside India, Hindi-speaking population is found in Mauritius, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, South Africa, Singapore, Uganda, Nepal, Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.

366 million first-language speakers; an additional 121 million second-language speakers

Throughout northern India: Delhi; Uttar Pradesh; Rajasthan; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; northern Bihar; Himachal Pradesh

Also spoken in Bangladesh, Belize, Botswana, Germany, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Uganda, UAE, UK, USA, Yemen, and Zambia



Malayalam is a Dravidian language used predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. It is one of the 22 official languages of India, and it is used by around 36 million people. Malayalam is also widely used in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Mah`e, the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu and Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu districts of Karnataka. It is also used by a large population of Indian expatriates living in Arab States, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada.

Total 37,198,000 speakers, with 35,351,000 in India, 1,800,000 in the Persian Gulf, 37,000 in Malaysia, and 10,000 in Singapore
Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam


Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are 90 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi is the fourth most spoken language in India and the 15th most spoken language in the world. Marathi is the oldest of the regional literatures in Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 1000 AD.

Total 90 million speakers, with 70 million native, 20 million second language

In Maharashtra and adjacent states

Also spoken in Israel and Mauritius. Marathi speaking population is found in the United States, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Netherlands, Canada, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Israel, Pakistan Singapore, Germany, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.

Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Southern zone


Eastern Panjabi is the state Language of Panjab, the northern state of India. 30 to 45 million people regard Eastern Panjabi as their main language. Western Panjabi is widely spoken in Pakistan. About 27 million consider this branch of Panjabi their first language.

Eastern Panjabi

27 million people speak Eastern Panjabi as their first language.

Punjab, Rajasthan, Delhi; Jammu and Kashmir

Also spoken in Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, UAE, UK, USA


Western Panjabi

30-45 million first-language speakers

Mainly in the Punjab area of Pakistan

Also spoken in Afghanistan, Canada, India, UAE, UK , USA



Telegu is one of the four classical languages of India. It is a South-Central Dravidian language mostly spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. The Telugu script is derived from the Brāhmī script of the Mauryan Empire. Telugu has been subjected to prolonged, enormous influence from Sanskrit and also from the Prakrits, the spoken Indo-Aryan languages of medieval North India.

70 million native, 75 million total

In Andhra Pradesh and neighboring states

Also spoken in Bahrain, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates

Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu


Urdu is one of the official languages of Pakistan, although it is spoken by only 8% of the population. It is also the state language of the Indian provinces of Jammu and Kashmir. Urdu is the language adopted by the majority of the Muslims in India. Urdu is written in the Persio-Arabic script and contains many words from the Persian language.

11 million first-language speakers; additional 44 million second-language speakers
Also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, UAE, United Kingdom, and Zambia