Reasons to Ban Currency Notes of Rs.500 and Rs 1000 in India
Effects of Ban on Currency notes of Rs. 500 and 1000.

Yes it is possible to ban Currency notes of Rs. 1000 and Rs.500.
Yes it is the necessity to ban Currency notes of Rs. 1000 and Rs.500 in India.

Currently how the total Indian currency is divided?

1. Rs.100 Notes = 23%

2. Rs.500 notes = 44%

3. Rs.1000 notes = 24%

Notes of 100,500 and1000 Rs. account for 93% of the Total Currency Money.

Fake currency notes are also found only in the currency notes of Rs.500 and Rs. 1000.
As per media reports currently fake currency in circulation in India is more than Rs 1,69,000 to 200,000 Crore

Please know that Reserve Bank of India has no power to ban the currency notes of 500 and 1000.

Only government of India is allowed to ban the currency notes.
Only government of India got power to ban the currency notes.

The central bank only prints currency notes, denominations are decided by the government,"

Government of India Reports says that 70% Indians earn daily Rs.20.

If someone is earning Rs.20 daily then he must be spending Rs.20 daily.

I assume that if any Indian is earning Rs.100 daily then also he can spend daily Rs.100.

What is the meaning per capita income?
What is the definition of Per capita income?

Per capita income is calculated by evenly dividing the national income among the country's population.

Per capita income – income per person in a population

Per capita income is often used to measure a country's standard of living.

Now Know the Per Capita Income of few countries

1. per capita income of US is 40000$

2. per capita income of UK is 20000£

3. per capita income of Japan is 40,00,000¥

4. Per capita income of India is projected to grow by 17.3 per cent to Rs 54,527 in 2010-11 from Rs 46,492 in the year-ago period. Currently Per capita income of India is Rs.46, 492. Per capita income (at 2004-05 prices) stood at Rs 36,003 in FY 2011 against Rs 33,731 in the previous fiscal, according to the latest data on national income. Official data released on Feb.7 2011.

5. Per capita income of India in US dollars will be $ 1041.6321 as per conversion rate June 8, 2011. INR Rs. 46, 492 = US $ 1041.6321

Divide Per capita income with highest denominator note and you will find the magic number and magic number for US is 400, UK is 400 and Japan is 400 and India is 37.

India needs to get the magic number 400.

Now what is the highest currency denominator in USA, UK and India?

1. USA highest currency denominator is $ 100 and Per capita income is 40000$

2. UK highest currency denominator is 50£ and per capita income is 20000£

3. India Highest currency denominator is Rs. 1000 and per capita income is $ 1041 or INR Rs. 46, 492

Now do you see that ratio of Per capita income and highest denominator currency?

1. USA = 40,000 $ = highest currency note 100$

2. India = 1041 $ = highest currency note is INR Rs 1000 = 22.409 $

When highest denominator note is 100$ what is the per capita income?
Per capita income is 40,000 $

In other language when per capita income is 40,000$ what should be the highest denominator note?
It is 100$

Now divide 40,000 by 100 it will be 400.

Now what is the per capita income of India it is $ 1041
Then what should be the highest denominator note for India.

40 000 = 100
1041 =?

The answer is 2.60$ should be the highest denominator note for India.

100 Rs. = US $ 2.24 - As per Conversion rate on June 8, 2011

1041 multiply 100 = 104100
Now divide it with 40,000 it will be 2.60%

Now same way if you will find different nations you will come to know that
Their ratio of per capita income to highest denominator currency is 400.
For UK magic number is 400
For Japan magic number is 400.

Not exactly 400 but it will be near to that in every developed country.

Thus India does not need the currency notes of more than Rs.100.

Today in India when we read about corruption amounts and fake currency notes found the number is in Crores always.

Did you ever heard that fake currency notes of 50 and 100 found in Crores of Rs?
Did you ever heard that bribe of Rs.1 Crore given in notes of Rs.50 and 100 notes?

These types of cases are rare I have never heard or read about this.

I am not here writing how the corruption happens in India.

Every one knows when corruption happens corrupt people use currency notes of Rs. 500 and 1000

To give bribe everyone knows that currency notes of Rs. 500 and 1000 are used.

What will happen if suddenly Government of India bans Rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes?

Nothing will happen for few days people will find it very difficult to do business.

To gain something one has to suffer the pain also.

In developed nations 90% transactions happen through banking system.

In India only 20% transactions happen through banking system.

Today why no one is interested in the development of banking system of India?

The reason is easy access to high denomination notes.

Once we will ban these notes village people will also demand open the banks in our area.

All the banks will see the growth opportunities in village and they will start to open banks in villages.

If you will ask any economist if he will tell you that good country is one where all the transactions happen through banking system.

Keeping poor people out of banking system is not good sign for any country.

I think that presence of high value notes in any country is the sign of corrupt country and corrupt culture and corrupt politicians.

Do you know that America also banned the high denomination notes in America in year 1969?

Year 1969 America banned High value notes to stop corruption.

America became the very corrupt country. The criminals, mafia dons and white collar criminals took full control of American economy.

That time American banking system was not developed.

All the transactions happened in Cash using notes of $ 500, 1000, 5000, 10000 including one lakh dollar note.

American population citizens were suffering because of corruption of politicians and mafia and white collar criminals.

In this situation President Richard Nixon took the bold step.
He did what no one expected.
In year 1969 President Nixon withdrew all the notes of higher than 100$

It was a great blow to corrupt people; this started the development of American banking system also.

American people found it very difficult to shift suddenly but to get something one has to suffer the pain also.

White collar criminals and politicians found it very difficult to accept bribes and do the corruption this it helped to reduce the corruption in America also.

As the notes of higher denomination were banned, baking system started to develop very fast in USA.

Now when we will ban the Notes of Rs.500 and Rs.1000 common citizens of India will face the problems for few months, but they will get used to banking system.

Government will be forced to develop our banking system in India.

Always remember purpose of Rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes is nothing but to develop black economy in India.
To take and give bribe, to do corruption.

Do you want Corrupt India or Honest India?

What America can do it why we Indians can not do it?

Demand and Support ban.

Ban Rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes in India.

And start a journey towards Honest India.

Apart from the 28 sites inscribed on the World Heritage list, India has also maintained a list of tentative sites for recognition which has been submitted to UNESCO Committee for evaluation and acceptance. This procedure of prelisting is a prerequisite for the nominations for the World Heritage list to be accepted
Projected world heritage sites:-
1. Alchi Monastery
Alchi Monastery or Alchi Gompa is a Buddhist monastery, known more as a monastic complex (chos-'khor) of temples in Alchi village in the Leh District, of the Indian state under the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council of Jammu and Kashmir. The complex comprises four separate settlements in the Alchi village in the lower Ladakh region with monuments dated to different periods. Of these four hamlets, Alchi monastery is said to be the oldest and most famous. It is administered by the Likir Monastery.[1][2][3]
                          Dukhang or the Assembly Hall is at the heart of the monastery complex, where monks perform worship and ceremonies. It is large and ancient, and the original wooden door frame is retained. Many additions were made to the ancient structure during the 12th and 13th centuries.

                           The Alchi Sumtseg in the Alchi complex is one of the most outstanding, but its purpose is not clearly established.[11] The Sumtseg (gSum-brtsegs) means a three storied building, though small, was built with loam and natural stone (reflected in the bland exterior) in the Tibetan building tradition. However, the luxuriant woodwork columns, facades, walls, clay images and paintings in the interior of the monastery were made by Kashmiri artists.[6]
Manjushri Temple
                       From various analysis of the iconography of the temple compared with that of the Sumtseg and Sumda Assembly hall, it has been inferred that the temple dates to around 1225 AD.[14] Manjushri Temple, also called 'Jampe Lhakhang', is built around the four central images of Manjushri (seated back to back) seen on a common platform that is 5.7 metres (19 ft) square

Bishnupur (Bengali: বিষ্ণুপুর) is a town and a municipality in Bankura District in the state of West Bengal, India. It is famous for its terracotta temples and the balucheri sarees.

3. Dholavira
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Dholavira is an archaeological site in Bhachau Taluka of Kachchh district of Gujarat state in western India, which has taken its name from a modern village 1 km south of it. The site of Dholavira, locally known as Kotada timba contains ruins of an ancient Harappan city. It is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located on theKhadir bet island in the Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary in Great Rann of Kutch. The site is surrounded by water in the monsoon season.[1] The site was occupied from c.2650 BCE, declining slowly after about 2100 BCE. It was briefly abandoned and reoccupied until c.1450 BCE.[2]
The site was discovered in 1967-8 by J. P. Joshi and is the fifth largest Harappan site in the Indian subcontinent, and has been under excavation almost continuously since 1990 by the Archaeological Survey of India. Eight large urban centers have been discovered: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Ganeriwala, Rakhigarhi, Kalibangan, Rupar, Dholavira, and Lothal.
4. Golkonda,
 a ruined city of south-central India and capital of ancient Kingdom of Golkonda (c. 1364–1512), is situated 11 km west of Hyderabad.
The most important builder of Golkonda was a Kakatiya King. Ibrahim was following in the spirit of his ancestors, the Qutub Shahi kings, a great family of builders who had ruled the kingdom of Golkonda from 1512. Their first capital, the fortress citadel of Golkonda, was rebuilt for defense from invading Mughals from the north
They ruled over the Telangana region and some parts of present day Karnataka and Maharashtra.[1]
The golconda fort use to have a Vault chamber where once the famous Kohinoor and Hope diamonds were stored alsong with other diamonds.[5]
Golkonda was once renowned for the diamonds found on the south-east at Kollur Mine near Kollur (modern day Guntur district), Paritala (modern day Krishna district) and cut in the city during the Kakatiya reign. India Diamond#History, at that time, had the only known diamond mines in the world.

The Mines of Golkonda themselves yielded diamonds of trifling quantity. Europeans knew that diamonds were found only in these fabled mines. Golkonda was, in fact, the market city of the diamond trade, and gems sold there came from a number of mines. The fortress city within the walls was famous for diamond trade.
Magnificent diamonds were taken from the mines in the region surrounding Golkonda, including Darya-e Nur, meaning sea of light, at 185 carats (37 g), the largest and finest diamond of the crown jewels of Iran.
Its name has taken a generic meaning and has come to be associated with great wealth. Gemologists use this classification to denote a diamond with a complete (or almost-complete) lack of nitrogen; "Golkonda" material is also referred to as "2A".
5. Rani ki vav
Rani ki vav is a famous stepwell situated in Patan town in Gujarat in India.
Patan was called as Anhilpur Patan when King Siddharja Jaysingh was ruling & it was the capital of Gujarat. Mr. Vanraja Chavda has founded Patan. During the period of the Solanki or Chalukya, the stepwell called the Rani ki vav, or Ran-ki vav (Queen’s step well) was constructed. It is a richly sculptured monument.
It is generally assumed that it was built in the memory of Bhimdev I (AD 1022 to 1063) son of Mularaja, the founder of the Solanki dynasty of Anahilwada Pattan in about 1050 AD by his widowed queen Udayamati.

It was probably completed by Udayamati and Karandev I after his death. A reference to Udayamati building the monument is in the 'Prabandha Chintamani' composed by Merunga Suri in 1304 AD.
6. Raniji ki Baori ( extra)
Raniji ki Baori is a noted stepwell situated in Bundi town in Rajasthan state in India. It was built in 1699 by queen Nthavati Ji.It is a 46 m deep stepped well with some superb carvings on its pillars and a high arched gate.It is a multistoreyed structure with places of worship on each floor.
7. Mattancherry Palace

The Mattancherry Palace, also known as the Dutch Palace, in Mattancherry, Kochi, in the Indian state of Kerala features Kerala murals depicting Hindu temple art, portraits and exhibits of the Rajas of Kochi.

8. Sher Shah Suri Tomb
Sher Shah Suri Tomb is a tomb in Sasaram town in Bihar state in India. It was built in memory of Emperor Sher Shah Suri who was a Pathan from Bihar. He ruled Northern India for five years, after defeating Humayun, the 2nd Mughal Emperor. Though he could rule for only five years, he died an accidental death due to a gunpowder explosion, in the fort of Kalinjar on 10th day of Rabi' al-awwal, A.H. 952 or 13 May 1545 AD [1]
9. Mandu, Madhya Pradesh
Mandavgad or Mandu is a ruined city in the Dhar district in the Malwa region of western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. The distance between Dhar & Mandu is about 35 km. In the 11th century, Mandu was the sub division of the Tarangagadh or Taranga kingdom . This fortress town on a rocky outcrop about 100 km (60 miles) from Indore is celebrated for its fine architecture.
10. Sarnath
Sarnath (Hindi: सारनाथ) or Sārnātha (also MrigadavaMigadāyaRishipattanaIsipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh,
The Ashoka Pillar erected here, originally surmounted by the "Lion Capital of Asoka" (presently on display at the Sarnath Museum), was broken during Turk invasions but the base still stands at the original location.
11, Hemis Monastery

Hemis Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery (gompa) of the Drukpa Lineage, located in Hemis, Ladakh (within the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir). Situated 45 km from Leh, the monastery was re-established in 1672 by the Ladakhi king Sengge Namgyal. The annual Hemis festival honoring Padmasambhava is held here in early June.
12. Harmandir Sahib
The Harmandir Sahib[1] (Punjabi: ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ, IPA: [həɾməndəɾ sɑhɪb] or IPA: [həɾɪməndəɾ sɑhɪb]) also Darbar Sahib[3] (Punjabi: ਦਰਬਾਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ, IPA: [dəɾbɑɾ sɑhɪb]), also referred to as theGolden Temple,[1] is a prominent Sikh gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab (India). Construction of the gurdwara was begun by Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru, and completed by his successor, Guru Arjan Dev. In 1604, Guru Arjan Dev completed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, and installed it in the Gurdwara. In 1634, Guru Hargobind left Amritsar for the Shivalik Hills and for the remainder of the seventeenth century the city and gurdwara was in the hands of forces hostile to the Sikh Gurus.[4] During the eighteenth century, the Harmandir Sahib was the site of frequent fighting between the Sikhs on one side and either Mughal or Afghan forces on the other side and the gurdwara occasionally suffered damage. In the early nineteenth century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region from outside attack and covered the upper floors of the gurdwara with gold, which gives it its distinctive appearance and English name of "Golden Temple".[5]
13. Majuli
Majuli or Majoli (Assamese: মাজুলী) is a large river island in the Brahmaputra river, in the Indian state of Assam. Majuli is the largest river island in the world. Majuli had a total area of 1,250 square kilometres (483 sq mi), but having lost significantly to erosion it has an area of only 421.65 square kilometres (163 sq mi) in 2001.
14. Matheran Hill Railway

Matheran Hill Railway is a heritage railway in Maharashtra, India. It was built between 1901 and 1907 by Abdul Hussein Adamjee Peerbhoy, financed by his father, Sir Adamjee Peerbhoy of the Adamjee Group at the cost of Rs.16,00,000.[1] Sir Adamjee Peerbhoy visited Matheran often and wanted to build a railway to make it easier to get there.
Neral, the starting point, is about midway between Mumbai and Pune. The railway covers a distance of 20 km (12.43 mi), over large swathes of forest territory connecting Neral to Matheran in the Western Ghats hills near Karjat and Mumbai.
he railways comes under the administration of the Central Railways and is being promoted as a future World Heritage Site.
15. Western Ghats

The Western Ghats or Western Ghauts (Marathi/Konkani: सह्याद्री, Kannada/Tulu: ಸಹ್ಯಾದ್ರಿ, Malayalam: സഹ്യാദ്രി / സഹ്യപര്‍വതം, Tamil: மேற்குத் தொடர்ச்சி மலைகள்) also known as the Sahyadri Mountains, is a mountain range along the western side of India. It runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan Plateau. The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the River Tapti, and runs approximately 1600 km through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India

16. Namdapha National Park
Namdapha National Park is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and is located in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. It is also the largest national park in India in terms of area. It is located in the Eastern Himalayan sub-region and is recognized as one of the richest areas in biodiversity in India[1]
17. Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary

Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary also known as the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Little Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat state of India. Spread over 4954 km², it is the largest wildlife sanctuary in India.[1]
The wildlife sanctuary was established in 1972 and came under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1973. The sanctuary is one of the last places on earth where the endangered wild ass sub-species Indian Wild Ass (Khur) (Equus hemionus khur) belonging to Asiatic Wild Ass species Onager (Equus hemionus) can be spotted.
18. Khangchendzonga National Park

Khangchendzonga National Park (previously named Kanchenjunga National Park) is a National Park and a Biosphere reserve located in North Sikkim district in the Indian state of Sikkim. The park gets its name from the mountain Kanchenjunga (alternative spelling Khangchendzonga) which is 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) tall, the third-highest peak in the world. The total area of this park is 849.5 km2 (328.0 sq mi). There are many glaciers in the park including the Zemu glacier. Animals like musk deer, snow leopard and Himalayan Tahr all make their home in this park.
20. Kangra Valley Railway
The Kangra Valley Railway lies in the sub-Himalayan region and covers a distance of 164 km (101.9 mi). from Pathankot to Jogindernagar. The Kangra valley railway comes under the Firozpur division of Northern Railway. It is one of two mountain railways that run in Himachal Pradesh, the other being Kalka-Shimla Railway, which is also a world heritage site.
Kangra, Himachal Pradesh is a hilly region which has an average elevation of 733 m (2,405 ft).

21. Churchgate
22. Oak Grove School (Jharipani, Mussoorie, India)
Oak Grove School is a residential public school, owned and run by the Northern Railway. It is situated on hill tops covering 256 acres (1.04 km2) in Jharipani, Mussoorie, India. Jharipani means drizzle and the onslaught of monsoons.
The school was started by the British Raj on June 1, 1888. The students predominantly consist of the children of Indian Railways employees; 25% of seats are reserved for outsiders. At present there are 560 students. The school consists of three semi-independent parts — Oak Grove Boys' School (commenced 1888), Oak Grove Girls' School (1890s) and Oak Grove Junior School (1912). The buildings were designed by the chief engineer of EIR. The School has been nominated for World Heritage Status by the Government of India.
23. Nalanda
Nālandā (Hindi/Sanskrit/Pali: नालंदा) is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India. The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. [1][2] It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history".[2] The Gupta Empire also patronized some monasteries. According to historians, Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Śakrāditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from Buddhist emperors like Harsha as well as later emperors from the Pala Empire.[3]
The complex was built with red bricks and its ruins occupy an area of 14 hectares. At its peak, the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as China, Greece, and Persia.[4] Nalanda was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji in 1193, a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. The great library of Nalanda University was so vast that it is reported to have burned for three months after the invaders set fire to it, sacked and destroyed the monasteries, and drove the monks from the site. In 2006, Singapore, China, India, Japan, and other nations, announced a proposed plan to restore and revive the ancient site as Nalanda International University.
24. Great Himalayan National Park
Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) is the newest addition to India's national parks, located in Kullu region in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The park was built in the year 1984. The park is spread over an area of 1,171 km2 that lies between an altitude of 1500 to 6000m.
25. Bhitarkanika Mangroves
The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in India's Orissa state. The Bhitarkanika Mangroves cover an area of 650 km² in the river delta of the Brahmani and Baitarani rivers.
26. Neora Valley National Park
Neora Valley National Park (Bengali: নেওরা ভ্যালি জাতীয় উদ্যান Neora Bhêli Jatio Uddan) (Nepali: नेउरा भेल्ली राष्ट्रीय उद्यान Neurā Bhelli Rāsriya Udyān) is situated in the Kalimpong subdivision under Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India and was established in 1986. It spreads over an area of 88 km² and is one of the richest biological zones in the entire Northeast. It is the land of the elegant Red Panda in the pristine undisturbed natural habitat with rugged inaccessible hilly terrain and rich diverse flora and fauna making this park an important wilderness zone
27. Desert National Park
Desert National Park, Rajasthan, India, is situated in the west Indian state of Rajasthan near the town of Jaisalmer. This is one of the largest national parks, covering an area of 3162 km². The Desert National Park is an excellent example of the ecosystem of the Thar Desert. Sand dunes form around 20% of the Park. The major landform consists of craggy rocks and compact salt lake bottoms, intermedial areas and fixed dunes.
Some fossils of Dinosaurs of 6 million years old have been found in the area.[1]28.
28. Santiniketan
Santiniketan (Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town near Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 kilometres north of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). It was made famous by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, whose vision became what is now a university town (Visva-Bharati University) that attracts thousands of visitors each year.[1] Santiniketan is also a tourist attraction because Rabindranath wrote many of his literary classics here, and his house is a place of historical importance. route of india
30.the maharaja railways...

According to the most popular legend that is also recorded in Rajtarangani and Nilmat Purana, two most authoritative books, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi who drained off the water, making it a beautiful abode.
But geologists have their own theory, which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century BC. which was later strengthened by Kanishka.
Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century. The valley regained freedom in 530 AD but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain empire.
After decline of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the valley had its own rulers. There was a synthesis of Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Lalitaditya (697-738 AD) extended his rule up to Bengal in the east, Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the northwest and Tibet in the northeast. Considered as the most famous Hindu ruler, he was known for constructing beautiful buildings. Islam came to Kashmir during 13th and 14th century AD. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the famous Muslim ruler, who came to Kashmir when the Hindu King Sinha Dev fled before the Tatar invasion. Later Chaks overran Haider Shah son of Zain-ul-Abedin. They continued to rule till 1586 when Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the feeble control of the Mughal emperor of the time, to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. The valley was ruled by the Pathans for 67 years.

Name of Jammu figures in the Mahabharata. Recent finds of Harappan remains and arteacts of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods at Akhnoor have added new dimensions to its ancient character. The land of Jammu was divided into 22 principalities. Raja Maldev, one of the Dogra rulers, conquered many territories to consolidate his kingdom. Raja Ranjit Dev ruled over Jammu from 1733 to 1782. His successors were weak and thus Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed the territory to Punjab. He later handed over Jammu to Raja Gulab Singh, a scion of the old Dogra ruling family, who had grown powerful among Ranjit Singh's governors and had annexed almost the whole Jammu region. The state was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947 when Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26 October 1947.
Jammu and Kashmir State is situated between 32015' and 37005' north latitude and 72035' and 83020' longitude East. Geographically, the State can be divided into four zones. First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plains commonly known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Shivalik ranges, the third mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and the fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil. Geographically and culturally the state has three distinct regions -- Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.

Indian water projects  

Linking of rivers (BBC report)
India's ruling party has launched a campaign to gather public support for one of India's most ambitious projects - the linking of rivers across the country.
The project aims to connect nearly 30 rivers in the country and is estimated to cost over $100bn.
It envisages diverting water from surplus river basins to water deficient areas.
Floods and drought have become a recurring problem in India and the project is aimed at improving the situation.
Last year a severe drought hit several Indian states, while floods destroyed people's harvests in many other areas.
The sharing of river waters has also led to tensions among some states, the most outstanding example being Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
These two southern states have been fighting for over a century over the Cauvery river.
Economic benefits
India's Bharatiya Janata Party-led government sees the inter-linking of rivers as a long-term solution to many of these problems.
Water for laundering clothes is a perennial problem
The party now plans to involve its grass-roots activists in the project.
"We plan to disseminate the idea and educate the masses through our party workers," the president of the BJP's youth wing, G Kishan Reddy, told the BBC.
Mr Reddy, who is heading the awareness drive, said workers of the youth wing would take the concept to state capitals from where they would spread into the districts and villages.
The BJP says the river-linking project would boost the annual average income of farmers from the present $40 per acre of land to over $500.
It says once the rivers are linked, India's food production will increase from about 200m tonnes a year to 500m.
River treaties
But neither the party nor the government led by it offers a specific answer to concerns raised by several environmental bodies.
They argue that the project would alter the basic character of many rivers and leave several hundred thousand people displaced.
They are also silent about how India would gather the resources to convert the grand idea into a reality.
The BJP and its leaders in the government have also ignored, for the time being, the international implications of the project.
India has river treaties with several neighbouring countries which prohibit Delhi from unilaterally altering river courses.
For the moment the party is backing the prime minister - who is keen on the project - in the hope that even if water does not reach dry areas, the project would win it votes in key elections this year.

National Waterway 1 (India)
The National Waterway 1 is located in India and runs from Haldia (Sagar) to Allahabad . It was declared as a waterway during October 1986.
National Waterway 2
The river Brahmaputra having a length of 891 Km between Bangladesh Border to Sadiya was declared as National Waterway No. 2 (NW-2) on 1st September, 1988.

National Waterway 3
The West Coast Canal or National Waterway No 3 is located in Kerala, India and runs from Kollam to Kottapuram and was declared a National Waterway in 1993.The dredging of this canal has been finished. The National waterway 3 is one of the most navigable and tourism potential area in India and has much to offer to the potential tourist. This is the first National Waterway in the country having 24 hours navigation facilities in the entire stretch.
Totallengh is 205 km.
National Waterway 4
Kakinada - Puducherry stretch of Canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam – Rajahmundry stretch of River Godavari and Wazirabad – Vijayawada stretch of River Krishna.
Estd = November 2008
Length = 1095 km

National Waterway 6 (India)
National Waterways 6 is a proposed waterway between Lakhipur and Bhanga of river Barak. Length = 121 km
National Waterway 5 (India)
National Waterway 5 (NW-5) consists of the Talcher - Dhamra stretch of the Brahmani River, the Geonkhali - Charbatia stretch of the East Coast Canal, the Charbatia - Dhamra stretch of Matai river and the Mangalgadi - Paradip stretch of the Mahanadi River Delta. It was declared a National Waterway in November 2008.
  • Established = November 2008
  • Length = 623 km
Basavarajeshwari Camp
Satyavathi Camp is a village in Sindanur Taluka, Karnataka, India. It is located beside a canal that provides water to three ponds. One stores drinking water for the villagers, and the other two provide water for lands for Paddy and Wheat Cultivation.The two ponds belongs to MullapudiKumarRaju.He is very found of his village Satyavathicamp.Satyavathi is the name of his grandmother.
Canoly Canal
Canoly canal is the part of the West coast canal network of Kerala and runs through the Kozhikode city. It was constructed in the year 1848 under the orders of then collector of Malabar, R. Canolly.[1] The Canoli Canal is 11.4 km (7 mi) long and connects the Korapuzha river in the north and the Kallai River in the south. The width of the canal varies between 6 to 20 metres (20 to 65 ft), and the water depth during the monsoon ranges between 0.5 and 2 metres (1.5 to 6 ft). The sides of most of the canal are lined with dimension stone, but at some locations the lining has collapsed. In a number of places along the canal, trees and bushes and water plants have grown, causing the water flow in the middle stretch of the canal to become weaker.[2]
The Canoly Canal Development Samithi in Calicut has recently decided to start speedboat service on the canal from Karaparamba to the Sarovaram park site in September 2009.[3]

Buckingham Canal
The Buckingham Canal is a 420 kilometres (261.0 mi) long fresh water navigation canal, running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh to Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu. The canal connects most of the natural backwaters along the coast to the port of Chennai (Madras). It was constructed by the British Rule, and was an important waterway during the late nineteenth and the twentieth century.
It was first known simply as the North River by the British and was believed to be partly responsible for reducing tsunami and cyclone damage to much of the Chennai-southern Andhra coastline

Indira Gandhi Canal
The Indira Gandhi Canal is one of the biggest canal projects in India.
It starts from the Harike Barrage at Sultanpur, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Sutlej and Beas rivers in Punjab state.

a view of Rajasthan canal near Fakarsar village(Punjab)
It runs south-southwest in Punjab and Haryana but mainly in Rajasthan for a total of 650 kilometers and ends near at Ramgarh, near Jaisalmer, in Rajasthan. Kanwar Sain the Chief engineer of Bikaner state was the first to come up the idea of the canal.
Its construction started on the 31st March,1958, inaugurated by then Home Minister Govind Ballabh Pant. It was built with the aim of converting part of the Thar desert from wasteland to agriculturally productive land. It was earlier known as the Rajasthan Canal. The name was changed on the 2nd Nov,1984.
It uses water released from the Pong dam and provides irrigation facilities to the north-western region of Rajasthan, a part of the Thar Desert. It consists of the Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 167 km in Punjab and Haryana and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan) and 445 km of the Rajasthan main canal which is entirely within Rajasthan. The IGNP traverses seven districts of Rajasthan: Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Hanumangarh, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, and Sriganganagar

Sethu Canal
The Sethu Canal, also known as the Sethu Samudram Ship Canal Project, was inaugurated on 2 July 2005, by Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India. This proposed navagational canal through a 19-mile (30 km) stretch of shallow sea in the Palk Strait would bypass passage around Sri Lanka. It would reduce the travel distance by some 470 nautical miles (870 km) and transit time by some 36 hours, but is beset by a number of financial and ecological questions.
The canal was first proposed in the late 19th century during the British Raj, and finally on 13 March 2003, the Central Government of India, headed by then Prime Minister Vajpayee, gave the go ahead
Cost Benefit Analysis
Assuming that international vessels would prefer to go through this canal as against the Colombo port route, an estimated 2,000 vessels or more may use the canal annually. In the 19th year, cumulative annual earnings from the project are expected to be over Rs 5,000 crore. The project is estimated to cost about Rs 2,000 crore and debt-equity ratio is estimated to be 7:5. The Central Government is planning to go in for a mix of equity and debt for the project and for the first time. These estimates must receive public scrutiny.
[edit] Recent controversy
Recently the canal has marred by controversy. NASA released satellite image showing possible man made under sea bridge in the Gulf of Mannar. Hindus in India have regarded this bridge as the remains of the bridge built by Vanar Sena to cross Sri Lanka, as mentioned in Ramayana. Against a PIL submitted in supreme court in India, the India government filed an affidavat claiming that the undersea bridge is a natural formation. The government had to withdraw the affidavat due to increased pressure from the Indian public.
NASA official Mark Hess had then stated: “Remote sensing images or photographs from orbit cannot provide direct information about the origin or age of a chain of islands, and certainly cannot determine whether humans were involved in producing any of the patterns seen.” Hess further stated that NASA had been taking pictures of these sandbars for years. Its images had never resulted in any scientific discovery in that area. “The images reproduced on websites may well be ours but their interpretation is certainly not ours.”

Sutlej Yamuna link canal
Sutlej Yamuna link Canal or SYL as it is popularly known, is a 214-kilometre (133 mi) long heavy freight canal in India to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers.[1] However, the proposal met obstacles [2] and was referred to the Supreme Court.[1]
SYL is being built westwards from near its headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the Sutlej-Indus watershed. This will connect the entire Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India's east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, drastically shortening shipping distances and creating important commercial links for north-central India's large population. The canal starts near Palla village near Delhi, and was to transfer Haryana's share of 3.5 million acre-feet from Indus Basin, though state of Haryana has completed its portion, Punjab is against its construction, and the state legislature passed the "Punjab Termination of Agreement Act 2004", which declared earlier agreements null and void.[3] A public interest litigation (PIL) challenging the Punjab Termination of Agreements Bill 2004 has been filed in the Punjab and Haryana High Court. The Act annuls the 1981 Indira Gandhi award and subsequent agreements relating to the distribution of Ravi- Beas waters among Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
In his petition C.W.P No. 11091 of 2004, Mr Naresh Kumar Kadyan of Rohtak in Haryana has questioned the validity of Act, passed recently by the Punjab Assembly. He has sought quashing of the Act.
He has also prayed that the recent judgement of the Supreme Court regarding the completion of the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) canal be immediately ordered to be complied with.
Today, the case could not be taken up and will be listed for tomorrow before the Division Bench of Chief Justice Mr Justice B.K. Roy and Mr Justice Surya Kant.


Tajewala Barrage is a barrage across the Yamuna River, located in Yamuna Nagar District, in the state of Haryana, India. Completed in 1873, it regulates the flow of the Yamuna for irrigation in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana through two canals originating at this place namely Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern Yamuna Canal,[1] as well as the municipal water supply to Delhi. In 2000, it was augmented with Hathni Kund barrage for manipulating the flow of river waters. 
Trivandrum–Shoranur canal
Trivandrum - Shoranur canal popularly known as T S canal was commissioned in stages under the three erstwhile states of Madras, Cochin and Travancore between 18th and 19th century. the portion between Channankara and Trivandrum was first done to effect through-traffic from Varkala to Trivandrum. Then, Paravoor canal was constructed to link backwaters of Paravur Kayal and Edava Kayal. Quilon canal came next connecting Paravur and Ashtamudi Kayal. Thus, the waterway route in this region was completed by 1880 to have through movement of goods and passenger-traffic between southern parts of Travancore parts of the state.

Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) [2] Centre is an autonomous Inter-University Centre of the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India. It is a major National Programme initiated by the UGC in 1991 with its Head Quarters at Gujarat University Campus, Ahmedabad. Initially started as a project under the IUCAA, it became an independent Inter-University Centre in 1996.
INFLIBNET is involved in modernizing university libraries in India and connecting them as well as information centres in the country through a nation-wide high speed data network using the state-of-art technologies for the optimum utilisation of information. INFLIBNET is set out to be a major player in promoting scholarly communication among academicians and researchers in India
National Library of India
The National Library of India (Bengali: ভারতের জাতীয় গ্রন্থাগার) at Belvedere, Calcutta is the largest library in India and India's library of public record.
It is under the Department of Culture, Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Government of India.The library is designated to collect, disseminate and preserve the printed material produced in India. The library is situated on the scenic 30 acre (120,000 m²) Belvedere Estate, in Kolkata, formerly Calcutta City. The Library is the largest in India, with a collection in excess of 2.2 million books. Before independence, it was the official residence of Lt. Governor of Bengal.
In 1903, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, the Governor General of India, conceived the idea of opening a library for the use of the public.
Metcalfe Hall ( not library, extra)
Metcalfe Hall is a heritage building situated in Kolkata, India, at the junction of Strand Road and Hare Street in the heart of the city's business district. The architectural piece is reflective of the British imperial architecture at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was built between 1840-1844 according to the design prepared by the city magistrate, C.K. Robinson and named after Sir Charles T. Metcalfe, the Governor-General of India, in honour of his efforts towards a free press. The building faces the Hooghly river on the West

Bharati Bhavan Library
Bharati Bhavan Library a Hindi and Urdu public library in Allahabad, India. The library was established in 1889 by the joint efforts of Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya and Mr. Bal Krishna Bhatt of Chowk, Allahabad.
Digital Library of India

Digital Library of India, part of the online services of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and partner in the Million Book Project, provides free access to many books in English and Indian languages. The scanning of Indian language books has created an opportunity for developing Indian language optical character recognition (OCR) software. The publications are mainly in PDF or QuickTime format.
Because of copyright laws, the texts are all out of copyright and therefore not sources for current information, but rather useful for history and background.
As of November 10, 2006, DLI had scanned 84,895 titles.

Dr. Vijay Pal Memorial Library
The General Library was started in the year 1975, and readers of all age groups make use of this library. The general library is situated on the first floor of the Community Hall in Block C-7, Keshav Puram, Delhi. This library comprises of a reading room and a library.
The readers are mostly the students appearing for competitive and professional examinations like IAS, IPC, Chartered Accountants, Engineering, Company Secretaryship, Cost Accountancy, Medical, Banking, etc., and also college students.

MCIT Library Consortium
In India, a number of Library Consortium operates to share e-Resources among the libraries to serve their library users. The important Consortiums that are being operational are INDEST-AICTE Consortium, UGC Infonet, CSIR Consortium, FORSA etc. 'MCIT Library Consortium' (Ministry of Communications and Information Technology) Library Consortium is one of members. This is an intra-ministrial initiative to subscribe and share the e-Resources at highly discounted rates and extend to its services to various organisations and institutions under its umbrella. It is an association of three Departments under MCIT, namely Department of Information Technology (DIT), Department of Telecommunication (DOT) and Department of Postal Services (DOP).
The beneficiaries of the Consortium are NIC, DIT, CDAC, DOEACC, SAMEER, STQC, STPI, ERNET INDIA, CDOT, and others. The e-Resources currently subscribed at Consortium Platform are IEEE/IEE Electronic Library, ACM Digital Library, and ISO/IEC Standards.
The Consortium had been continuoutsly operational since 2005.The headqurter of the Consortium is at Department of Information Technology, 6, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003.

Hazrat Pir Mohammad Shah Library
The Hazrat Pir Mohammed Shah Library is located in Ahmedabad, in the state of Gujarat, India. One of the oldest libraries in India, it has a collection of rare original manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Turkish languages.
Documentation Research and Training Centre
Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) is a research centre (and a department) for library and information science and allied disciplines at the Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore. The Centre was established in April 1962, under the auspices of Prof. S. R. Ranganathan (considered to be the father of modern library and information science in India) with the encouragement of Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis at the Indian Statistical Institute.
DRTC runs a graduate program leading to the award of a 'Master of Science in Library and Information Science' (MS-LIS) from the Indian Statistical Institute as well as serving as an academic and research center for Research Fellows registered for a PhD in Information Science. DRTC is perhaps, India's only "proper" ischool with a very strong research program. Research at DRTC generally focuses on the application of information technology to library and information science.
DRTC is widely considered to be the best research centre in India in the fields of library science and information science. It also has a very strong research program and a PhD collaboration with the University of Trento, Italy.

Maulana Azad Library
The Maulana Azad Library (Hindi: मौलाना आज़ाद किताब ख़ाना, Urdu: مولانا آزاد کِتاب خانہ Maulānā Azād Kitāb Khāna) is the library of Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh, India. It consists of a central library and over 80 college and departmental libraries. These libraries cater to the needs of postgraduates and students of professional courses. It is also the largest library in India and second largest in Asia and contains collections of great historical importance.
National Depository Centre

National Depository Centre is a public library in India which receives a copy of all books, newspapers and periodicals published in the country [1]. There are four centres:
  • Connemara Public Library in Chennai
  • Asiatic Society of Bombay in Mumbai
  • National Library, Calcutta
  • Delhi Public Library, Delhi
National Medical Library
National Medical Library is a medical library established on April 1, 1966 by the Government of India. It is located in Ansari Nagar, New Delhi.
It aims to provide library and information services to the health science professionals in India. It functions under the administrative control of the Directorate General of Health Services.
It has 3.6 lakh volumes of books, reports, bound volume of journals and other literature. It subscribes around 2000 periodicals annually. The library has good collection of 19th century literature. Books are classified according to the Dewey Decimal Classification. It became the Indian focal point of HELLIS Network under World Health Organization in 1982.
Dewey Decimal Classification ( extra)
For the similar-sounding base-12 numeral system, see Duodecimal.
The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a proprietary system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey in 1876.[1]
It has been greatly modified and expanded through 22 major revisions, the most recent in 2003.[2] This system organizes books on library shelves in a specific and repeatable order that makes it easy to find any book and return it to its proper place. The system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries.[3][4]
A designation such as Dewey 16 refers to the 16th edition of the DDC.