World Heritage Sites in India-
Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage is both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seek to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972. At present there are 840 sites in 144 countries, which are in the list of world heritage. As of April 2009, 186 States Parties have ratified the World Heritage Convention.  There are 27 World Heritage Sites in India along with latest addition of Kalka-Shimla Railway line on 8th July 2008. A two member team of UNESCO World Heritage Committee is coming to India for a final inspection of the Matheran Light Railway (MLR), Mumbai on 25th October 2009. Apart from list of these 27 inscription sites, India has submitted a tentative list of many other sites in India. Here is a list of inscription World Heritage Sites in India-
  • Ellora Caves, Aurangabad, Maharashtra [1983]-
  • Ajanta Caves, Aurangabad, Maharashtra [1983]-
  • Agra Fort, Uttar-Pradesh [1983]-
  • Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar-Pradesh [1983]-
  • Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu [1984]-
  • Sun Temple, Konark, Orissa [1984]-
  • Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam [1985]-
  • Kaziranga National Park, Assam [1985]-
  • Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan [1985]-
  • Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. Place is known for thousands of rare and highly endangered birds such as the Siberian Crane come here during the winter season. The park was a hunting ground for the maharajas of Bharatpur, a tradition dating back to 1850, and duck shoots were organised yearly in honor of the British viceroys.
  • Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh [1986]-
  • Group of Monuments at Hampi, Karnataka [1986]-
  • Churches and Convents of Goa [Basilica of Bom Jesus], [1986]-
  • Fetahpur Sikri, Uttar-Pradesh [1986]-
  • Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal [1987]-
  • Great Living Chola Temples, Tamil Nadu [1987]-
  • There are total 3 main temples under tag of “Great Living Chola Temples”. Only 1 Temple [Brihadiswara Temple at Tanjavur] out of these 3 temples has been listed in world heritage sites in 1987 but later in 2004 other two temples at Darasuram [Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram] also added in the list.
  1. Brihadiswara Temple [Built of Granite by Chola King Rajaraja I (1009-1012)]
  2. Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram [Built by Rajendra I (1012-1044)]
  3. Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram [Built by Rajaraja II (AD 1143-1173)]
  • Elephanta Caves, Mumbai, Maharashtra [1987]-
  • Group of Monuments at Pattadakal, Karnataka [1987]-
  • Nanda Devi & Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttrakhand [1988]-
  • Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh [1989]-
  • Qutub Minar and its Monuments, Delhi [1993]-
  • Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi [1993]-
  • Mountain Railways of India [1999]-
  • There have been 4 sites under Indian Railway which are listed with world heritage sites tag. Out of these 4 sites 3 comes under the tag of Mountain Railway of India mentioned as follows-
  1. Mountain Railways of India, Darjeeling, West Bengal
  2. Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Tamil Nadu
  3. Kalka-Shimla Railway, Himachal Pradesh [Latest addition in the list on 8th July 2008]
  4. 4th Site comes under Indian Railway but doesn’t come Mountain Railway i.e. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), Mumbai
  • Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya [2002]-
  • Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh [2003]-
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), Mumbai [2004]
  • Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat [2004]-
  • The Red Fort complex, New Delhi [2007]-
Recently an expert team of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) led by Dr. Gion Caprez visited India to evaluate The Matheran Light Railway, Maharashtra for inscription as a World Heritage Site
What is concept of Human Development Index [HDI]-?
The Human Development Index (HDI) is an index used to rank the countries on the basis of developed, developing, or underdeveloped country based upon human development in that country.
It is being used since 1990. The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and India’s Nobel prize Winner Economist Amartya Sen [Noble prize winner of 1998]
It is prepared by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
It is a composite of 3 factors-
  • Life      Expectancy at birth or life expectancy at birth also called LEI (Life      Expectancy Index)
  • Standard      of Knowledge & Education : Adult Literacy Rate also called EAI      (Education Attainment Index) given 2/3 priority and Gross Enrollment Ratio      (GER) given 1/3 priority (weight age)
  • Standard      of living measured by natural logarithm of gross domestic product per      capita also called SLI (Standard of Living Index)
The latest report is of year 2008. It was a new index was released on December 18, 2008. It was called “statistical update” and it covers the period up to 2006 and was originally published without an accompanying report on human development. The update is relevant due to newly released estimates of purchasing power parities (PPP), implying substantial adjustments for many countries, resulting in changes in HDI values and, in many cases, HDI ranks. Here are the salient features of this report (memorable points):-
  1. It      was launched in December 2008
  2. It      includes 177 UN members plus Hong Kong plus Palestinian territories.
  3. Countries      fall into three broad categories based on their HDI: high, medium and low      human development.
  4. Iceland      is the top of this list with HDI of 0.968.
  5. India’s      Rank is 134 with HDI of 0.609 [it was 132th in 2008 with HDI of      0.619]
  6. Top      5 countries are Iceland, Norway, Canada, Australia and Ireland
  7. Japan      Tops the list in Asia (0.956)
  8. Libya      Tops the list in Africa (0.840)
  9. Canada      has an Higher HDI (0.967) than USA (0.950)
  10. Since      1990, Japan, Norway, Iceland & Canada only have been able to get a top      slot in this index
Indian States [Languages, Religion and Notable points]-
S.   No.NameLocal   LanguageFamous   Things
J & K
Urdu, Kashmiri & Dogri. Urdu written in the   Persian script is the official language of the state.
Under Article 370, Separate   Constitution, 6 Year assembly term
Only State where Muslims are in   Majority
Since 1990, the Armed Forces Act is   applicable to J&K [criticized by Human Right Activists]
Only 4% population is under BPL
Ambitious Kashmir   Railway project which is being constructed by Konkani Railway Corporation and IRCON
Vaishno   Devi and Amarnath
Gulmarg, one of   the most popular ski resort destinations in India & home to the   world’s highest green golf course
Monastic Fest, Buddhism is an integral   part of Ladakh’s culture
Dumhal is a famous dance in the Kashmir   valley, performed by men
2.Himachal   PradeshHindi, Bilaspuri &   PahariLocated in Western HimalayasMaximum Population belongs to   Rural [92%]
Abundance of perennial rivers
The economy of the state is highly   dependent on three sources- hydroelectric power, tourism and agriculture
Least corrupt after Kerala
Fruit bowl of the country
Flower basket of the world
Well known habitat to a variety of   animals. It has 12 major national parks and sanctuaries – the largest number   in the Himalayan region. Musk Deer is State Animal of HP
Himachal has a rich heritage of handicrafts
The Kalka-Shimla Railway track has a length of   96 kilometers recently included in World Heritage List
There are 3 domestic Airports in State   but  No international Airport
Kangra Painting
3.UttrakhandaHindi, Kumaoni, & GarhwaliThe High Court of the state is in Nainital27th State of Republic of   India [2000]
Well known as the birthplace of the Chipko environmental movement
The native people of Uttrakhanda are   generally called either Kumaoni or Garhwal
Many Holy sites of India Like Haridwar,   Kedarnath, Badrinath,   Gangotri, Yamunotri & Rishikesh located in the State
Rishikesh is widely considered the Yoga capital of the world.
Jim Corbett National Park (the oldest   national park of India) at Ramnagar in Nainital District
Valley of Flowers National Park and Nanda Devi National Park in Chamoli   District [UNESO world heritage site]
Rajaji National Park in Haridwar District
Top Tourist destination of India due to   hill-stations of Nainital, Mussoorie, Almora, Kausani, Bhimtal and Ranikhet
Mindroling Monastery & Shri Bheema   Shankar Mandir
Kartik Purnima
4.PunjabPunjabi, The Punjabi   language, written in the Gurumukhi script is the official and most   commonly used language in the stateGolden Temple, Bhangra & BaisakhiHighest per capita income and Human Development Index in India
Punjab is a fertile plain of India   [Alluvial Soil]
There are a number of wetlands, bird   sanctuaries and zoological parks all over Punjab
Cobra is common snake in Punjab
The holiest of Sikh Shrines, the   Shri Harmandir Sahib Ji (or Golden   Temple), is in The Holy city of Amritsar
The Sri Akal Takht Sahib Ji which resides within   the Golden temple complex is the temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five   Takhts (Temporal Seats) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab
Anandpur   Sahib is where Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa on Baisakhi
Professor Har Gobind Khorana, famous Nobel   laureate & biotechnologist was educated at Punjab University.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Award (a   very prestigious award) is associated with Punjab
The first ever Asian Member of the US   Congress, Dr. Dalip Singh Saund, was a Punjabi as was Kalpana   Chawla, the famous US astronaut.
5.HaryanaHindi, Haryanvi & Khadi BoliHaryana has the 3rd highest per capita income in the countryDuring the Indian rebellion of 1857, several   leaders from this region, including Rao   Tula Ram, participated actively
Rainfall is varied, with the Sivalik   Hills region being the wettest and the Aravalli Hills region being the driest
Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Haryana.
Establishment of Nano City a joint venture between   the Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation   (HSIIDC) and Nano Works Developers Private Ltd, a company promoted by Sabeer   Bhatia, the much talked about creator of Hotmail will further   boost the state position in this sector.
Haryana was the first State in the   country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970
Haryana has adopted a new sports policy   on August 21, 2009

Comments (0)